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Woodrow Mann

Woodrow Mann


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Woodrow Wilson Mann, the son of a businessman, was born in Little Rock, Arkansas, on 13th November, 1916. After graduating from the University of Illinois, he joined the United States Navy and served on the staff of Admiral Chester Nimitz in the Pacific.

In 1945 went into the insurance business. A member of the Democratic Party, he was elected as mayor of Little Rock in 1955. A supporter of reform, Mann installed a new integrated bus system within six months of gaining office. He also overturned Jim Crow rules that forced blacks to use cups at the City Hall water fountains and doubled the number of black policeman in the city.

The Supreme Court had announced in 1954 that separate schools were not equal and ruled that they were therefore unconstitutional. Some states accepted the ruling and began to desegregate. However, several states in the Deep South refused to accept this judgment. On 3rd September 1957, the governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, used the National Guard to stop black children from attending the local high school in Little Rock. Mann disagreed with this decision and on 4th September telegraphed President Dwight Eisenhower and asked him to send federal troops to Little Rock.

On 24th September, 1957, President Dwight Eisenhower, went on television and told the American people: "At a time when we face grave situations abroad because of the hatred that communism bears towards a system of government based on human rights, it would be difficult to exaggerate the harm that is being done to the prestige and influence and indeed to the safety of our nation and the world. Our enemies are gloating over this incident and using it everywhere to misrepresent our whole nation. We are portrayed as a violator of those standards which the peoples of the world united to proclaim in the Charter of the United Nations."

After trying for eighteen days to persuade Orval Faubus to obey the ruling of the Supreme Court, Eisenhower decided to order paratroopers of the 101st Airborne Division, to protect black children going to Little Rock Central High School. The white population of Little Rock were furious that they were being forced to integrate their school and Faubus described the federal troops as an army of occupation.

Elizabeth Eckford and the other eight African American students that entered the school suffered physical violence and constant racial abuse. Parents of four of the children lost their jobs because they had insisted in sending them to a white school. Eventually Orval Faubus decided to close down all the schools in Little Rock.

Mann and his family received death threats and Klu Klux Klan crosses were burnt on his front lawn. When his term as mayor ended in 1958 he was forced to leave Little Rock and moved to Dallas where he returned to the insurance business. Woodrow Wilson Mann died on 6th August 2002.


Future Little Rock Mayor Woodrow Wilson Mann was born on November 13, 1916, in Little Rock.

In 1955, he ran as the Democratic nominee for Mayor of Little Rock and defeated two term incumbent Pratt C. Remmel, a Republican. He took office in January 1956 and immediately set about to make a lot of changes. In addition to revitalizing the City’s bus system, and removing some color barriers at City Hall, he oversaw the dismantling of the copper dome on top of Little Rock City Hall (as opposed to the repair of the dome championed by Mayor Remmel).

Mayor Mann was caught up in a grand jury investigation into purchasing practices at City Hall as well as within the City government in North Little Rock. Partially in response to this, Little Rock voters approved a new form of government in late 1956. Mayor Mann opposed the switch to the City Manager form and refused to set the election for the new officials but was ultimately compelled to do so.

He was also Mayor during the 1957 integration of Little Rock Central High School. He sought to keep the peace and to broker a deal between President Dwight Eisenhower and Governor Orval Faubus. His powers within the city were, no doubt, hampered because of his lame duck status as Mayor. In November 1957 following the election of the new City Board of Directors, he chaired his last City Council meeting and left office.

In January of 1958, a series of articles written by Mayor Mann detailed his perspective on the events at Central High. These were carried by newspapers throughout the US.

Because of ill will toward him due to the Central High crisis (he was criticized by both sides) and grand jury investigation, Mayor Mann felt it would be difficult to maintain his insurance business in Little Rock. He moved to Texas in 1959 and remained there the rest of his life. He died in Houston on August 6, 2002.


Woodrow Mann - History

The Woodrow Clay Hamilton, Jr. Collection of West Virginia High School and College Yearbooks

bold entries denote yearbooks added to the collection from other sources -A-

Alderson Baptist Academy and Junior College, (Alderson, Greenbrier County) "The Boardwalk," 1924 (Vol. I)

Alderson High School (Greenbrier County), "Indian Echoes," 1940, 1964, 1965 (Vol. 6), 1966, 1968

Alderson-Broaddus College, (Philippi, Barbour County), "Battler," 1926, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1962 (c. 2), 1968, 1969, 1973, 1975, 1982 (Vol.54)

Andrew Jackson Junior High School, (Cross Lanes, Kanawha County) "Jackson Journal," 1975 "Journal," , 1980, 1981 (2 copies), 1982, 1986
Andrew Jackson Middle School (Cross Lanes, Kanawha County), 2000, 2003, 2004

Ansted High School (Fayette County), "The Trail," 1929, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1966, 1969, 1971

Appalachian Bible College (Bradley, Raleigh County), "Gleaner," 1979

Arthurdale-Masontown High School (Preston County), (no name), 1956

Athens High School (Mercer County), "Trojan," 1969, 1970, 1985

Aurora High School (Preston County),"The Trailblazer," 1938 (Vol. II), 1939

Baileysville High School (Wyoming County), "Rough Rider," 1969

Barboursville High School (Cabell County), "The Torch," 1933, 1934, 1934 (c.2) "The Treasure Chest," 1947, 1947 (c.2), 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1956 (c.2), 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1962 (c.2), 1963, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1972 (2 copies), 1973 (2 copies), 1974 (2 copies), 1975, 1975 (c.2), 1976, 1976 (c.2), 1977, 1978, 1978 (c.2), 1979, 1979 (c.2), 1980, 1980 (c.2), 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1985 (c.2), 1986, 1986 (c.2), 1987, 1988, 1994

Barboursville Junior High School (Cabell County), 1969, 1970, 1971 (2 copies), 1972, 1973

Barracksville High School (Marion County), "Bisoneer," 1975 (Vol. 34), 1976

Bath District High School (Berkeley Springs, Morgan County), "Warm Springs Echoes," 1929 (Vol.4), 1930

Bayard High School (Grant County), "Alligewinik," 1953

Battelle High School, (Wadestown, Monongalia County), "The Battelle," 1918 (Vol. 2), 1919

Beaver High School (Bluefield, Mercer County) "The Beaver," 1911, 1912, 1913, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1936, 1938, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1946, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952, 1954, 1956
Bluefield High School, "The Beaver," 1960, 1964, 1968 (Vol.44), 1970, 1978, 1981, 1988, 1989.

Beckley College, (Raleigh County), "The Beckolegian," 1937 (Vol. I), 1940 (Vol.II), 1953, 1955

Beckley Institute, (Raleigh County), 1908-09

Beckley Junior High School (Raleigh County), "Eaglet," 1970

Belington High School (Barbour County), "High View," 1929 (Vol. I)

Berkeley Springs High School, (Morgan County), "The Arrowhead," 1963, 1964, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1998, 2002, 2003, 2006, 2009

Bethany College (Bethany, Brooke County), "The Meteor," 1898 "The Kodak," 1906, 1907, "The Bethanian," 1909 (Vol.VIII), 1911, 1912, 1915, 1916, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941 "Bethany Log," 1944 "The Bethanian," 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1973 (c.2), 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999-2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006-2007

Bethany High School (Brooke County), "The Bisonian," 1967

Beverly High School (Randolph County), "Wildcat," 1951, 1953 (Photo Book, grades 2-12), 1954, 1955 (Vol. 7), 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1963

Beverly Hills Junior High School (Huntington, Cabell County), "Blackhawks," 1980, 1981

Big Creek High School (War, McDowell County), "Memoirs," 1952, 1954, 1955, 1956 (2 copies), 1957 (2 copies), 1958, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1969, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1978, 1994, 1998

Big Sandy District High School (Clendenin, Kanawha County), "Windmill," 1920 (Vol. 1), 1920 (2 copies), 1922, 1924 (2 copies), 1925, 1926, 1929, 1930 (2 copies) (See Clendenin High School for later volumes)

Bishop Donahue High School (McMechen, Marshall County), "Veritas," 1964, 1970 (Vol.XII), 1971

Bluefield High School (Mercer County), "The Beaver," - see Beaver High School

Bluefield College (Virginia), "Rambler," 1938

Bluefield Colored Institute (Mercer County), "Senior Annual," 1919

Bluefield State College, (Mercer County), "The Bluefieldian," 1937 "The Golden Torch," 1950 "Diablos Azules," 1965, 1967, 1968 "Blueprint," 1970, 1971 (2 copies), 1974, 1977, 2001

Bramwell High School (Mercer County), "The Pinnacle," 1956, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972

Braxton County High School (Sutton, Braxton County), "The Eagle," 1971, 1974, 1977, 1981, 1981 (c.2), 2004, 2005

Bridgeport High School (Harrison County), "The Vista," 1927 (Vol. I) "Ki-Cu-Wa," 1942, 1946, 1952, 1969, 1970, 1975, 1976, 1978 (Vol.37)

Bristol High School (Harrison County), "Bison," 1954, 1956, 1967, 60 Years of Memories, 1913-1973

Broaddus College, (Philippi, Barbour County), "Battler," 1927, 1928, 1928 (c.2).

Broaddus Institute (Philippi, Barbour County), 1916 (vol. 1), 1917 (vol. 2).

Brooke High School (Wellsburg, Brooke County), "Crossroads," 1974 Brown's Creek District High School (Kimball, McDowell County), "Onelie Skule Daze," 1925

Buckhannon-Upshur High School, (Upshur County), "The Rhododrendron," 1922 (Vol. I), 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1926 (c.2), 1927, 1928, 1929 "Buckongehanon," 1949 (Vol. I) (first yearbook since 1930), 1952, 1954, 1955, 1959, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1968, 1970, 2000.

Buffalo High School (Kenova, Wayne County), "Memoriae," 1946 (Vol. IV) "The Bison," 1969, 1974, 1976, 1978

Bunker Hill High School (Berkeley County), "Memories," 1927 (Vol.I)

Burnsville High School (Braxton County), "Onimgohow," *1935, 1959

Burnsville Grade School (Braxton County), 1970, 1976, 1977, 1978-79, 1983-84, 1984-85, 1992, 1994-95, 1996-97 (all photocopies)

Cabell Midland High School (Ona, Cabell County), "Excalibur," 1996, 1996 (c.2), 1997, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016

Cabin Creek District High School, (Kanawha County), "Kanawhan," 1921, 1923 (Vol. VII), 1926, 1930, 1931 (2 copies), 1932

Cairo High School (Ritchie County), "Pharaoh," 1969

Calhoun County High School (Grantsville), "The Calhounian," 1930 (Vol. I), 1931, 1939 (Vol. III), 1940, 1941, 1945-1946 (Vol. VI), 1946-1947, 1951, 1952, 1952 (c. 2), 1955, 1958, 1983, 1984, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1996

Calvary Baptist Academy (Putnam County), 2000

Camden-Clark Memorial Hospital School of Nursing (Parkersburg, Wood County), "Starch and Stripes," 1959

Cameron High School (Marshall County), "The Hilltop," 1921 (Vol. 1).

Cammack Junior H. S. (Huntington, Cabell County), 1971

Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca (Greenbrier Military School's Four Tribe Camp), 1942

Capital High School (Charleston, Kanawha County), "The Blue Book," 1990, 1992, 1995.

Capon Bridge Junior High School (Hampshire County), 1968, 1975-76

Carroll District High School (Hamlin, Lincoln County, appears to become Hamlin High), "Llorrac," 1924 (vol. 1, 3 copies), 1925 (3 copies contains "Educational History of Lincoln County," by F. B. Lambert) 1926 (2 copies), 1928 (2 copies)

Cedar Grove Community School (Kanawha County), 1985

Cedar Grove High School, (Kanawha County), "Trails," 1957 (2 copies), 1958 (2 copies), 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962 (2 copies), 1963 (2 copies), 1964 (2 copies), 1965, 1966 (3 copies), 1966, 1967 (3 copies), 1968, 1969 (2 copies), 1970

Central Catholic High School (Wheeling, Ohio County), "Stella Marist," 1954 "Stella Maris," 1962, 1963 "Accolade," 1965, 1966, 1967, 1970.

Central Preston High School (Kingwood, Preston County), 1990, 1991 (final issue)

Ceredo-Kenova High School (Wayne County), "Heraldus," 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1942, 1947, 1954, 1965, 1970

Chapmanville High School (Logan County), "Tiger," 1993

Charleston High School, (Kanawha County), "The Bookstrap," 1919, 1920. "The Charlestonian," 1909 (Volume 1), 1910 (3 copies), 1910, 1911, (c.2), 1912 (2 copies), 1913 (3 copies), 1914 (2 copies), 1915, 1915, 1917, 1921, 1922 (2 copies), 1922 (2 copies), 1923 (3 copies), 1924, 1924 (3 copies), 1925, January 1925, 1925 (2 copies), 1926, 1926 (2 copies), 1927, 1927 (2 copies), 1928, 1928, 1929, 1929 (5 copies), 1930, 1930 (3 copies), 1931, 1931 (3 copies), 1932, 1932 (2 copies), 1933, 1933 (3 copies), 1935 (3 copies), 1936, 1936 (2 copies), 1937 (2 copies), 1938, 1938 (3 copies), 1939, 1939 (2 copies), 1940 (2 copies), 1941, 1941 (3 copies), 1942, 1942 (2 copies), 1943, 1944, 1945, 1945 (c.2), 1946, 1946, 1947, 1947 (5 copies), 1948, 1948 (c.2), 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1956, , 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1962 (2 copies), 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1984, 1987, 1988, 1989 (last issue).
"Portfolio," Spring 1946

Charleston Catholic High School (Kanawha County), "Shamrock," 1957, 1965 "Irish Rover," 1971, 1990, "Fighting Irish," 1995, 1996, 1999 "The Irish," 2002 "Initial Reaction," 1993

Charles Town High School (Jefferson County), "The Rambler," 1926 (Vol. VII), 1927, 1930, 1931, 1941, 1954, 1956, 1961, 1962

Chattaroy High School (Mingo County), "Yellow Jacket," 1957

Chester High School (Hancock County), "The Polaris," 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1961, 1963

Circleville High School (Pendleton County), "Indio," , 1985, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998 (last issue).

Clay County High School (Clay County), "Tiskelwah," 1959, 1967, 1987, 1988 (Vol.47), 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000
Catalog, 1914-1915

Clay District High School (Shinnston, Harrison County), "The Courier," 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1931, 1937

Clear Fork High School (Colcord, Raleigh County), "Panther Pride," 1986
"Panther Challenge," 1979, "Panther Cry," 1981, "Odyssey," 1982

Clendenin Elementary (Kanawha County), 1980, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, "Cardinal Communications" 1987, 1988, 1989

Clendenin High School (Kanawha County), "The Mountain Echo," 1943 (2 copies), 1946, "Clenecho," 1948, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1963 (see Big Sandy District High School for earlier volumes) Senior Pictorial, 1944 50th Reunion Class of 1945 Echoes of Clendenin, 1912-1963 (3 copies) Reunion 1997

Coalton High School (Randolph County), "The Mountaineer," 1947, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1967

Collins High School (Oak Hill, Fayette County), "The Acorn," - see Oak Hill High School

Concord State Normal School, (Athens, Mercer County), "Rhododrendron," 1913 Concord College (Athens, Mercer County), "Concord Echoes," 1915 (Vol. I) "Pine Tree," 1934, 1934 (c.2), 1935 (2 copies), 1936, 1948, 1950, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1963 (c.2), 1964, 1964 (c.2), 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1972 (c.2), 1973, 1973 (c.2), 1974, 1974 (c.2), 1977, 1978, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991

Cowen High School, (Webster, County), "Bulldog Barx," 1967

Crichton High School (Quinwood, Greenbrier County) "Wildcat," 1962

Cross Lanes Christian (Kanawha County), "Centurian," 1985

Crum High School (Wayne County), "Mountaineer," 1951 (Vol. I), 1953, 1954, 1962, 1963, 1966, 1968, 1970, 1971, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1978 (2 copies), 1979, 1980, 1980 (c. 2), 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987

Davis & Elkins College (Elkins, Randolph County), "The Phoenix," 1922 "The Senator," 1923, 1925, 1925 (c.2) "The Nautilus," 1926, (Vol. 1) "Senatus,"1940, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958 (2 copies), 1960, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1971, 1975, 1978, 1989-1990

DeSales Heights Academy of the Visitation, (Parkersburg, Wood County), "Heights Lights," 1979

Doddridge County High School (West Union), "The Bulldog," 1971, 1973, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003.

Dorothy Elementary (Dorothy, Raleigh County), 1954

DuBois High School (Mount Hope, Fayette County), "The Echo," 1937

Dunbar High School (Kanawha County), "The Bulldog," 1944, "The Link," 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949 "The Bulldog," 1959, 1960, 1961 (two copies), 1962, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1989, Reunion book 1999

Dunbar Junior High School (Kanawha County), "Bullpup," 1963, 1985, 1986-87

DuPont High School (Belle, Kanawha County), "The DuPontian," 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1955, 1974, 1975, 1987, 1988.

DuPont Middle (Belle, Kanawha County), 2001, 2006

Duval High School (Griffithsville, Lincoln County), "Ace," 1925, "Orange and Black," 1926, 1929, 1947, 1948, 1948 (c.2), 1949, 1949 (c.2), 1951 "Yellowjacket," 1952, 1955, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 2000 (2 copies), 2001 (2 copies), 2002 (2 copies), 2003 (2 copies), 2005

East Bank High School, (Kanawha County), "Kanawhan," 1938, 1939, 1940, 1942, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1955, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982 (2 copies), 1983, 1984, 1993

East Bank Middle School, (Kanawha County), "Mountaineer Echoes," 1977-1978 (Vol. 3) (3 copies), 1979 (2 copies), 1980, 1981, 1983 (3 copies), 1985 (3 copies), 1987 (3 copies), 1999-2000, 2000, 2001-2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006-2007 (2 copies), 2008 (3 copies)

East Fairmont High School (Marion County), "Orion," 1922 (Vol. I), 1923, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1937, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1958, 1969, 1972, 1973, 1977, 1994 (known as East Side High School prior to 1925)

East Hardy High School (Baker, Hardy County), "Concolor," 1981, 1982, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010

East Preston High School (Preston County), "East Prestonian," 1979, 1980, 1982

East River High School (Princeton, Mercer County), "The Cliffs," 1917 (Vol. I)

East Side High School (Fairmont, Marion County) - see East Fairmont High School

Eastern Greenbrier Junior High School, (Ronceverte, Greenbrier County), 1992-1993, 1994

Edray District High School, (Marlinton, Pocahontas County), "Seneca," 1925, 1926 (Vol. II), 1928 "Marlintonian," 1930 (Vol. 1)

Elizabeth High School, (Wirt County), "The Elizabethan," 1926 (Vol.III), 1926 (c.2)

Elk District High School (Elkview, Kanawha County), "The Antler," 1925 (Vol. 1), 1925 (c.2), 1926, 1927, 1929, 1929 (c.2), 1940
Elkview High School, "Antler," 1943, 1957

Elk Garden High School, (Mineral County), "Wapiti," 1975

Elkhorn High School, (McDowell County), "The Flying Fifty," 1950 (Photocopy)

Elkins First Ward School (Randolph COunty), 1983, 1984
Elkins High School (Randolph County), "The Tiger," 1916, 1917 (2 copies), 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, "The Little Tiger," 1927, "The Tiger,"1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1958, 1959.

Elkview High School, (Kanawha County) - see Elk District High School

Elkview Junior High School (Kanawha County), "The Antler," 1973-74 (2 copies), 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979
Elkview Middle School (Kanawha County), "The Antler," 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2003, 2004

Fairmont High School (Marion County), "Maple Leaves," 1910, 1916, 1916, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1970, 1980, 1989, 1990, 1993, 1999.

Fairmont State Normal School, (Marion County), "The Mound," 1908, 1909 (Vol. II), 1910, 1913, 1914, 1916, 1917, 1918 "Bulletin-Mound," 1919, "The Mound," 1921.

Fairmont State Teacher's College, (Marion County), "The Mound," 1927, 1928 (three copies), 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1935, 1936.

Fairmont State College, (Marion County), "The Mound," 1937, 1938 (two copies), 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1949, 1950 (2 copies), 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964 (2 copies), 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974 (2 copies), 1975, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981 (two copies), 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1996, 2006

Fairview High School, (Marion County), "The Paw Paw," 1914 (Vol. I), 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1925, 1928, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954

Farmington High School (Marion County), "Lincolneer," 1919 (Vol. I), 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1944, 1945, 1947-1948, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1961, 1965.

Fayetteville High School (Fayette County), "Pirate Treasure Chest," 1952, 1964, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1973

Fayetteville Middle School (Fayette County), 1983, 1985

Fellowsville High School (Preston County), "Memories," 1953, 1954, 1959, 1960, 1968

Flemington High School (Taylor County), "Memoirs," 1958, 1984 (Vol. 54), 1985, 1988 "By Gone Reflections," 1930-1990

Follansbee High School (Brooke County), "The Forge," 1946 (Vol. I), 1962, 1963, 1964

Fort Ashby High School, (Mineral County), "Fortress," 1947, 1949, 1952, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1972 (c.2), 1973, 1973 (2 copies), 1974 (2 copies), 1975

Frankfort High School (Short Gap, Mineral County), "Talon," 1977 (Vol. I), 1978, 1993

Frankfort Middle School (Ridgely, Mineral County), "The Crest," 1993 (Vol. 1), 1995

Franklin High School (Pendleton County), "Panther," 1976 (Vol. XXIII), 1978, 1980, 1980 (c. 2), 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998 (last issue)

Gap Mills High School (Monroe County), "Mill Wheel," 1960, 1961

Garnet High School (Charleston, Kanawha County), 1900-1956, "The Way We Were." (a retrospective)

Gary High School, (McDowell County), "The Coaldigger," 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1962, 1968

Gassaway High School (Braxton County), "The Elk," 1959, 1960, 1962.

Gauley Bridge High School (Fayette County), "The Gauneka," 1927 (Vol. I), 1928, 1939 (newspaper pictures), 1952, 1979, 1980, 1981

George Washington High School (Charleston, Kanawha County), "Patriot," 1965 (Vol. I), 1968, 1971, 1972

Gilbert High School (Mingo County), "The Roaring Lion," 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1987 Reunion Books, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010

Gilmer County School (Glenville, Gilmer County), "Gilmaurora," 1971, 1972, 1973 (3 copies), 1974

Gilmore High School (Sandyville, Jackson County), "The Pirate," 1958, 1960, 1961

Glen Rogers High School, (Wyoming County), "The Owl," 1956, 1957, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982.

Glade District High School (Cowen, Webster County), "Gladihisra," 1925, 1927.

Glenville State College, (Gilmer County), "Kanawhachen," 1911 (Vol. I), 1911 (c.2), 1914 (Vol. II), 1916, 1922, 1924 (3 copies), 1926 (2 copies), 1929, 1937, 1942, 1953, 1958, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1972 (c.2), 1973, 1973 (c.2), 1974 (2 copies), 1975, 1975 (c.2), 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990 (2 copies), 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 (2 copies), 1999, 2000, 2000-2004.

Grafton High School, (Taylor County), "The Brooklet," 1909, 1911, "Vox Discipuli," 1912, 1914-15 "The Mountaineer," 1920 (Vol. I) "Re-Echo," 1961, 1973, 1974, 1975

Grant District High School, (Cairo, Ritchie County), 1925

Green Bank High School (Pocahontas), "Mountain Breezes," 1924 (Vol. II), 1968, 1969, 1970

Green District High School (Reader, Wetzel County), Annual 1917 v. 1

Greenbrier College (Lewisburg, Greenbrier County), "Follies," 1925, "Saga," 1927 (two copies), 1929, 1937, 1940, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1956, 1957, 1962, 1972

Greenbrier Military School, (Lewisburg, Greenbrier County), "The Trooper," 1922 (Vol. I.) "The Brier Patch," 1923 (Vol. I.), 1924, 1925, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1937, 1937 (c.2), 1938, 1938 (c.2), 1939, 1940, 1942, 1944, 1945, 1945 (c.2), 1946, 1951, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1961, 1962, 1963
Greenbrier Military School Catalogue, 1912-1913, 1913-1914, 1914-1915, 1919-1920, 1920-1921, 1921-1922, 1922-1923, 1926-1927, 1928-1929, 1934-1935, 1936-1937 (2 copies), 1937-1938 Summary of Annual Catalogue, 1926-1927

Greenbrier West High School (Charmco, Greenbrier County), "The Cavalier," 1969, 1970, 1970 (c.2), 1980

Greenville High School (Monroe County), "The Milestone," 1954

Guyan Valley High School (Branchland, Lincoln County), "The Gee Vee," 1938, "School Daze," 1949 "Wildcat," 1955

Hamilton Junior High School, (Parkersburg, Wood County), "The Hamiltonian," 1971

Hamlin High School, (Lincoln County), "Pied Piper," May 1937, 1937 (c.2), 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1951 (c.2), 1951 (c.3), 1952, 1952 (c.2), 1952 (c.3), 1953, 1954, 1954 (c.2), 1955, 1955 (c.2), 1956 (2 copies), 1956 (c.3), 1957 (2 copies), 1958, 1959 (3 copies), 1960, 1961, 1961 (c.2), 1962, 1962 (c.2), 1963 (3 copies), 1963 (c.4), 1964, 1965 (2 copies), 1965 (c.3), 1966, 1966 (c.2), 1967 (3 copies), 1967 (c.4), 1968, 1968 (c.2), 1969, 1970 (2 copies), 1970 (c.3), 1971, 1971 (c.2), 1972 (2 copies), 1973 (3 copies), 1974 (2 copies), 1975, 1976, 1977, 1988

Hampshire High School, (Romney, Hampshire County), "The Trojan," 1965 (Vol. I) 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1988, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2004, 2005 (2 copies), 2006, 2008 (2 copies), 2009 (2 copies), 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

Harman High School, (Randolph County), "Panther," 1955, 1967, 1969, 1977

Harpers Ferry High School, (Jefferson County), "Ferry Tales," 1963, 1964

Harrisville High School (Ritchie County), "Mountain Echoes," 1927

Hedgesville High School (Berkeley County), "Eagle," 1950, 1952, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1966, 1969, 1970, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992

Herbert Hoover High School (Clendenin, Kanawha County), "President," 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1975, 1976

Hillsboro High School (Pocahontas County) "The Echo," 1923, 1924 "Red Devil," 1952, 1957, 1959, 1960, 1963, 1964, 1970

Hinton High School (Summers County), "The Dart," 1922, 1924, 1926, 1927, 1929, 1938, 1940, 1941, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1966, 1967

Horace Mann Junior High School (Kanawha County), Yearbook, 1978, 1978, 1979, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982 (2 copies), 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989

Hundred High School (Wetzel County), "Centurion," 1954, 1955, 1958, 1960, 1961

Huntington H. S. (Cabell County), "The High School Annual"1915 (Vol.2, reprint), 1916, "The Tatler," 1920 (Vol.7), 1923, 1925, 1926, 1927 "The Huntingtonian," 1928 (Vol. I), 1929, 1930, 1931, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1941, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1956, 1957, 1957 (c.2), 1960, 1961, 1962, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1972, 1974, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1984 "Capstone," 1997 (v.1), 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2010, 2011

Huntington East High School (Cabell County), "East Hi," 1942 (Vol. II), 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1961, 1962 "Highlander," 1963, 1964, 1968, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1976, 1982, 1983, 1984

Hurricane High School (Putnam County), "The Hurricane," 1938, 1941 "The Redskin," 1957, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1973, 1996

Iaeger High School (McDowell County), "The Mountaineer," 1926 "The Pilot," May 1930, April 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1963, 1972

Independence High School (Coal City, Raleigh County), "Patriot Spirit," 1987 (Vol. XI)

James Monroe High School (Lindside, Monroe County), "Stampede," 2000 (Vol. 6)

Jane Lew High School (Lewis County), "The Lewisite," 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1941, 1942

Jefferson High School (Jefferson County), "Reflections," 1974, 1976

John Marshall High School (Glen Dale, Marshall County), "Pride," 1976 (Vol. VIII), 1978, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2007

Keyser High School (Mineral County), "Black and Gold," 1922, "Keyhisco," 1930, 1936, 1946, 1949, 1951, 1953, 1955

Kingston High School (Fayette County) "The Mountaineer Echo," (Vol. I) 1941

Lenore High School (Mingo County), "Lenorian," 1960 "The Ranger," 1964

Lewis County High School (Lewis County), "Collicola," 1985

Lewisburg High School (Greenbrier County), "The Senator," 1950, 1956, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1968 (final issue) Senior Souvenir Album 1962 Memories from "The School on the Hill" 1924-1968 Reunion 1993

Lewisburg Seminary, (Greenbrier County), "Record," Vol. 3, No.1, 1918-1919 (Student List-no pics), "Follies," 1920, 1922
"The Greenbrier," 1907

Liberty High School (Glen Daniel, Raleigh County), "Legacy," 1983, 1985, 2000

Lincoln High School (Shinnston, Harrison County), "Cougar Tracks," 1979 (two copies), 1980, 1991

Lincoln Junior High School (Charleston, Kanawha County), "The Searchlight," 1937, January 1938, May 1938

Linsly Military Institute (Wheeling, Ohio County), "At Ease," 1953, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1966, Alumni Directory, c1976, 1979 "The Aviator," 1983 "Linsly," 1989

Logan High School (Logan County), "Guyana," 1923 (Vol.I), , 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1929 (c.2), 1930, 1939, 1944, 1951, 1952, 1957, 1957 (c.2), 1959, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967.

Logan High School (Logan County), Senior Souvenir, 1935

Lost Creek High School, (Harrison County), "Memories," 1921, 1927, 1950, 1965 (last issue)

Lumberport High School (Harrison County), "The Eagle," 1947 (two copies), 1950, 1958, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1967, 1968, 1969

Madonna High School (Weirton, Hancock County), "The Madonnian," 1961 (Vol. III)

Magnolia High School (New Martinsville, Wetzel County), "The Magnolia," 1914, May 1916, 1919, 1920, 1922 (2 copies), 1924 (Vol. XIV), 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931 "The Magnolian," 1936, 1938, 1939, 1940 (2 copies), 1942, 1944, 1944, 1947, 1948, 1959, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979

Man High School (Logan County), "The Hillbilly," 1950, 1951, 1952, 1956 "Echo," 1958, 1969, 1987

Mannington High School (Marion County), "The Mirabile," 1909, 1917, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1939, 1941, 1942, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977.

Marlinton High School, (Pocahontas County), "Nautilus," 1934, "Marlintonian," 1947, 1948, 1966

Marmet Junior High School (Kanawha County), "Mustangs," 1968, 1969-1970, 1971-1972, 1979, 1985, 1986, 1989

Marshfork High School, (Montcoal, Raleigh County), "The Kennel," 1953, 1986, 1989

Marshall College/University (Huntington, Cabell County), "Mirabilia," 1910, 1911, 1913, 1913 (c.2), 1916, 1917, 1918, 1921, 1924, 1924 (c.2), 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1929 (c.2), 1930, 1930 (c.2), 1931, "Chief Justice, "1940 (Vol. I), 1940 (c.2), 1941, 1946, 1948, 1948 (c.2), 1949, 1950, 1951, 1951 (c. 2), 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1960 (c.2), 1961, 1962, 1962 (c.2), 1963, 1963 (c.2), 1964, 1965, 1965 (c.2), 1966, 1967, 1968, 1968 (c.2), 1969, 1969 (c.2), 1970, 1971, 1971 (c.2), 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1986 (2 copies), 1987, 1987 (2 copies), 1988, 1988, 1989, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1992 (c.2), 1993, 1993 (c.2), 1994 (2 copies) Freshman Register, 1978

Marshall High School (Huntington, Cabell County), "The Echo," 1949 "Brigadier," 1951, 1954, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960.

Martinsburg High School (Berkeley County), "The Triangle," 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1922, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, "The Orange & Black," 1936, 1937 "The Triangle," 1941, 1947, 1949, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1967, 1969.

Masontown High School (Preston County), "The Laurel," 1928, "The Echo," 1954

Mathias School (Hardy County), "Mahigan," 1969, 1973, 1975 (2 copies, c.2), 1979

Matoaka High School (Mercer County), "The Alethian," 1928 (Vol. 1) "Wahoo," 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1975, 1977

McKinley Junior High School (St. Albans, Kanawha County), 1st annual May Festival 1964

McKinley Vocational High School (Wheeling, Ohio County) "The Craftsman," 1953, 1954, 1964, 1965, 1966

Meadow Bridge High School (Fayette County), "The Monte' Meade," 1957, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989

Mid-America Christian School (Huntington, Cabell County), "Shadows," 1979 (Vol.II)

Milton High School, (Cabell County),Grant District High School, "The Grantonian," 1930 "The Miltonian," 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939 (two copies), 1940, 1941, 1942, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1953 (c.2), 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1963 (c.2), 1964, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1970 (c.2), 1971, 1971 (c.2), 1972, 1972 (c.2), 1973, 1973 (c.2), 1975, 1975 (c.2), 1976, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1993 (c.2), 1994

Miss Adams' School, (Charleston, Kanawha County), 1905, 1906

Monongah High School, (Marion County), "Black Diamond," 1922 (Vol. II), 1938, 1941, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1978

Montcalm High School (Mercer County), "The General," 1959

Montgomery High School (Fayette County), "The Chien Gris," 1940, 1940 (c.2), 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1964, 1968.

Montgomery Preparatory (Fayette County), "The Spectator," 1914 (Volume 1)

Moorefield High School, (Hardy County), "The Yellowjacket," 1940 (Vol. II), 1941, 1957, 1959, 1961, 2001, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010

Morgantown High School, (Monongalia County), "Memories," 1919, 1919 (c.2), 1921, 1922, 1922 (c.2), 1923, 1925 "Retrospectus," 1927 "Mohigan," 1928 (Vol.I), 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1934, 1936, 1937, 1941, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1949, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973.

Morgantown Junior High School, (Monongalia County), "The Dragon," 1968, 1969, 1970

Morris Harvey College (Charleston, Kanawha County), "The Harveyan," 1923, 1923 (c.2), 1924, 1924 (c.2), 1925, 1926, 1927, 1927 (c.2), 1928, 1928 (c.2), 1929, 1929 (c.2), 1930, 1931, 1931 (c.2), 1932, 1933, 1933 (c.2), 1934, 1934 (c.2), 1935, 1935 (c.2), 1938, 1938 (c.2), 1939, 1939 (2 copies), 1941, 1941 (2 copies), 1942, 1942 (2 copies), 1945, 1945 (c.2), 1946, 1946 (2 copies), 1947, 1947 (2 copies), 1948, 1948 (3 copies), 1949, 1949 (c.2), 1950, 1950 (c.2), 1951, 1951 (2 copies), 1952, 1952 (3 copies), 1953, 1953 (3 copies), 1954, 1954 (c. 2), 1955, 1955 (c. 2), 1956 (2 copies), 1957, 1957 (c.2), 1958, 1958 (c.2),1959, 1959 (3 copies), 1960, 1960 (4 copies), 1961, 1961 (4 copies), 1962, 1962 (3 copies, 1963, 1964, 1964 (2 copies), 1965, 1965 (2 copies), 1966, 1966 (c.2), 1967, 1967 (4 copies), 1968, 1968 (2 copies), 1969 (4 copies), 1970, 1970 (3 copies), 1971, 1971 (2 copies), 1972, 1972 (c.2), 1973, 1973 (2 copies), 1974 (2 copies), 1975, 1975 (2 copies), 1976, 1976 (c.2), 1977, 1977 (c.2)
University of Charleston, unnamed, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981 (2 copies) "The Phoenix," 1983 (2 copies), 1984 (2 copies), 1986, 1986 (c.2), 1988 (3 copies), 1989, 1990,1991, 1992, 1993 "Talon," 1994 (80th Anniversary retrospective), 1994

Moundsville High School (Marshall County), "The Orospolitan," June 1914, Feb., Mar., June,1916, May 1917, May 1918, 1919, 1922, 1924, 1925, 1925 (c.2), 1926, 1926 (c.2), 1927, 1927 (c.2), 1928 (2 copies), 1928 (c.3), 1929, 1931, 1932, 1935, 1938, 1939, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946 (3 copies), 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1953, 1954, 1955 (2 copies), 1956, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961 (2 copies), 1962 (2 copies), 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967

Mount de Chantal Visitation Academy (Wheeling, Ohio County), "The Mount," 1914/15, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1923 (2 copies), 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1934, 1935, 1935 (2 copies), 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1946, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958 , 1959, 1972/72, 1973/74, 1978, 1979, 1982/1983 (2 copies), 1984, 1985, 1986.1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996 "Onyx," 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 (last issue)

Mount Hope High School (Fayette County), "Mons Spei," 1919 (Vol. I), 1924 (Vol. 2), 1928, 1962, 1963, 1996

Mountain State College, (Parkersburg, Wood County), "Mounstacoan," 1951, 1952, 1953.

Mullens High School (Wyoming County), "The Rebel," 1955, 1964

Musselman High School, (Inwood, Berkeley County), "The Memory Jub," 1950" "The Echo," 1951, 1952, 1953, 1959, 1960, 1960 (c. 2), 1961, 1961 (c. 2), 1962, 1962 (c. 2), 1963, 1963 (c. 2), 1964, 1964 (c. 2), 1965, 1965 (c. 2), 1966, 1960 (c. 2), 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 2005

New Cumberland High School (Hancock County), "The Pebble," 1961

New River State School, (Montgomery, Fayette County), "Ahwanak," 1921, 1922, 1923 (Vol. III), 1924, 1930, 1930 (c.2)

Newell High School (Hancock County), 1923

Nicholas County High School, (Summersville), "Nichlosean," 1916, 1923, 1923, 1925 (Vol. 6), 1938, 1938, 1947, 1950, 1952, 1956, 1961, 1965, 1966, 1971, 1972, 1974, 1989, 1994, 2001 "Thirty Years of Our Lives 1948-1978"

Nitro High School (Kanawha County), "The Spy Glass," 1940, "Powder Keg," 1942, 1942 (c. 2), 1943, 1944, 1945 "The Wildcat," 1947, 1949, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1973, 1974, 1975 "Nitronian," 1983, 1984 (3 copies), 1985 (2 copies), 1987, 1988, 1989 Memories, Class of 1954 (post-1989)

Normantown High School (Gilmer County), "Viking Review," 1937, "Viking Re-Vue," 1940

North Berkeley Elementary School (Morgan County), 1977, 1978, 1979

Northfork District Schools (McDowell County), 1921

Northfork High School, (McDowell County), "Hi-Lights," 1940, 1942 (Vol. VI) (two copies), 1947

Northfork-Elkhorn High School (Northfork, McDowell County), "Blue Demon," 1954, 1955, 1956, 1964, 1965, 1966

North Marion High School, (Farmington, Marion County), "North Star," 1992, 1998 (Vol.19), 1999

Notre Dame High School (Clarksburg, Harrison County), "Leprachaun," 1956, 1957, 1958, 1963, 1964, 1965 (no name), 1982

Nuttall High School (Lookout, Fayette, County), "Nutshell," 1957, 1958

Oak Hill High School (Fayette County), "The Acorn," 1924, 1925, 1926, 1980
(Collins High School from 1950-1977) Collins High School (Oak Hill, Fayette County), "The Acorn," 1953, 1962, 1963, 1964

Ohio Valley College (Parkersburg, Wood County), "Vallerian," 1968, 1969, 1972, 1982

Ohio Valley General Hospital School of Nursing, (Wheeling, Ohio County), "Cap 'n bib," 1961 "The Nutrix," 1974, 1977

Paden City High School, (Wetzel County), "The Green and White," 1966, 2003

Parkersburg High School, (Wood County), "The Pilgrim," 1914 (class list 1916) "The Quill," March, April, & May 1919, January 1920, January 1921, June 1921, January 1922, June 1922, January 1923, June 1923, Feb.1924, June 1924, January 1925, May 1925, "The Parhischan," 1926, 1927, 1927 (c.2), 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1932 (c.2), 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938 (available on Mi21-2, Reading Room cabinet), 1939, 1940, 1941 (available on Mi21-2, Reading Room cabinet), 1942, 1943, 1944, 1944 (c. 2), 1945, 1945 (c. 2), 1946, 1947, 1947 (c. 2), 1948, 1948 (2 copies), 1949, 1949 (4 copies), 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1956 (c.2), 1957, 1958, 1958 (c.2), 1959, 1959 (c.2), 1960, 1960 (c.2), 1961, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1970, "A Classic Example," 1986, 1994

Parkersburg Catholic High School (Wood County), "Omnibus Omnia," 1956, 1958 1966, "Crusader," 1984

Parkersburg South High School, (Wood County), "Patrian," 1969, 1970, 1980.

Parsons High School, (Tucker County), "The Black Arrow," 1927 (Vol. I) (two copies), 1928 1940 (class picture) "The Sylvanian, III," 1949 "The Panther," 1959

Paw Paw High School (Morgan County), "Papahisco," 1984, 1989

Pax High School (Fayette County), "The Wildcat," 1954 (1st since 1941).

Pendleton County High School (Pendleton County), "Wildcat," 1999 (Vol. 1), 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010

Pendleton County M.S. (Pendleton County), 2010 (Vol. 1)

Pennsboro High School (Ritchie County), "Cardinal," 1968 (Vol.38),1985

Petersburg High School (Grant County), "The Petro-Schola," 1959 (Vol. 14), 1961, 1969, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009

Peterstown High School (Monroe County), "The Treasure Chest," 1940, 1947, 1957, 1971, 1979

Philippi High School (Barbour County), "Golden Days," 1929 (two copies)

Philip Barbour High School, (Philippi), "Equestrian," 1965, 1966, 1967, 1995 (Vol.32)

Pickens High School (Randolph County), "Panther," 1972, 1986.

Piedmont High School (Mineral County), "Tris," 1921 (Vol.6), 1923, 1924, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932.

Pine Grove High School (Wetzel County), "Whispering Pines," 1922 "Blue and Gold", 1947

Pineville High School (Wyoming County), "The Minutemen," 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1956, 1966

Pleasants County M. S. (Belmont, Pleasants County), "Minutemen," 1988, 1989

Poca High School, (Kanawha County), "Pocatalico," 1929, 1956, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1978

Pocahontas County High School (Dunmore, Pocahontas County), "The Warrior," 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1990, 1993, 1996 (Vol. 26)

Point Pleasant High School, (Mason County), "The Oh-Kan," 1925, 1925 (c. 2), 1927, 1928, 1929, 1929 (c.2), 1931, 1935, 1935 (c.2), 1936, 1937, 1937 (c.2), 1938, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1942 (c.2), 1943, 1944, 1945, 1950, 1952, 1953

Potomac State College (Keyser, Mineral County), Preparatory Branch, "The Herald," 1921 (Vol. I) "The Potowmak," 1927 (Vol. I), "Bulletin," 1932-33 "The Catamount," 1939 (Vol. 1), 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1961, 1961 (c.2), 1962, 1962 (c.2), 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1971-72, 1972-73 1973, 1974, 1975.

Powatan College, (Charles Town, Jefferson County), "War Whoop," 1905 (Catalogue), 1912

Pratt Junior H. S. (Kanawha County), 1967, 1968

Preston High School (Kingwood), "Legasy," 1992 (Vol. I)

Princeton High School, (Mercer County), "The Cliffs,"1925 (Vol. II), 1945 "The Tiger," 1952, 1957 "The Tiger Legend," 1968

Rainelle High School (Greenbrier County), "Adytum Memoriae," 1939 (Vol.I), 1940, 1941 "The Ranger," 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1958 (c.2), 1960, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1965 (c.2), 1966, 1966 (c.2), 1967, 1967 (c.2), 1968, 1968 (c.2) Rainelle Schools, 1981-1982 (elementary though ninth grade)

Rainelle High School Reunion, First Reunion, 1925-1968 (1992) Second Multi-Class Reunion, 1925-1968 (1997) Third Multi-Class Reunion, 1925-1968 (2002) Fourth All School Reunion, 1925-1968 (2007)

Ravenswood High School (Jackson County), "The Nautilus," 1921 (Vol.I), 1922, 1925, 1952, 1953, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1985

Reader High School (Wetzel County), "The Read-er," 1938

Richwood High School, (Nicholas County), "The Mnemosyne," 1926, 1926 (c.2), 1927 (2 copies), 1928 "Woodsman," 1940 "The Lumberjack," 1952, 1954, 1955

Ridgeley High School (Mineral County), "The Ridgeleyette," 1942, 1949, 1973

Ripley High School, (Jackson County), "The Pioneer," 1925, 1925 (c.2), 1926, 1927 "The Viking," 1938, 1939, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017

Ritchie County High School (Harrisville), "Rhapsody," 1987 (Vol.I)

Rivesville High School (Marion County), "Campus Shadows," 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980

Roane County High School (Roane County), "Accolade," 1998
1994 (Vol. 1)

Romney High School, (Hampshire County), "Pioneer," 1955 (Vol.1), 1956, 1963, 1964

Roosevelt-Wilson High School (Nutter Fort, Harrison County) "The Echo," 1928 (Vol.II), 1930 The Comecho," 1942, 1950, 1952 "The Teddy Bear," 1961 "Prexie," 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971

Roosevelt Junior High School (Charleston, Kanawha County), "Roughrider," 1984, 1985, 1986, 1989, 2000

Rowlesburg H.S, (Preston County), "Cheatonian," 1988 (Vol. 42), (last issue)

Rupert High School, (Greenbrier County), "The Crimson Tide," 1950, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1963, 1963 (c.2), 1964, 1967, 1968 senior memories book for Paul Cohenour, 1967

Sacred Heart Grade School, (Charleston, Kanawha County) "Bulldogs," 2009

St. Albans High School (Kanawha County), "Simmerings," 1933, "Dragonian," 1939, 1941 (Vol. IV), 1945, 1946, 1948, 1949, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1970 (c.2), 1977, 1988

St. Albans Junior High School (Kanawha County), "The Eaglean," 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989

St. Anthony's High School, (Follansbee, Brooke County), "San Antonian," 1963

St. Frances School of Nursing, (Charleston Kanawha County), "Annual," 1952 (Vol.1).

St. Francis Central High School (Morgantown, Monongalia County), 1986

St. Hilda's Hall (Charles Town, Jefferson County), "Links," 1920, 1921, 1923

St. Joseph's Academy (Wheeling, Ohio County), "Memories," 1946,1947, 1955, 1957, 1959.

St. Joseph's Central Catholic High School, (Huntington, Cabell County), "The Blue and Gold," 1958, 1959, 1960 The Builder," 1980, 1981

St. Joseph's High School (Martinsburg, Berkeley County), "Crusader," 1969

St. Joseph's Hospital School of Nursing, (Parkersburg), "Annuals of St. Jo," 1948 "Sajonu," 1957, 1959

St. Joseph Parish School, (Martinsburg, Berkeley County), 2005, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2015, 2017, 2019

St. Joseph's Seminary, (Vienna, Wood County), "The Thane," 1969, 1972, 1974

St. Mary's High School, (Clarksburg, Harrison County), "Perfectionist," 1954 "Vale," 1955 (last issue)

St. Mary's High School (Pleasants County), "The Pageant," April, 1910 (Vol. I, #5) "The Purple and Gold," 1914, 1915 (Vol. 2), 1917 (Vol. 3), 1922 (Vol. 5), 1925, 1926, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1939, 1940, 1943, 1949, 1950, 1954, 1955, 1961, 1965, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1995.

St. Mary's Hospital School of Nursing (Huntington, Cabell County), "The Marionite," 1956 (3 copies)

St. Patrick's High School (Weston, Lewis County), "The Green and Gold," 1947, 1951, 1953, 1955

Salem College (Harrison County), "Fensterscheibe," 1917 (Vol. 1 - 2 copies), "Vindauga," 1922 (two copies) "Dirigo," 1923, 1924, 1924 (c.2), 1925, 1926, 1926 (c.2), 1927, 1928, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933 (two copies), 1934, 1936, 1937 (two copies), 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1953, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965 (2 copies), 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973 (two copies), 1974, 1975, 1978.

Salem High School (Harrison County), "Mountain Memories," 1918 "Galleon," 1928 (Vol. I), 1939, "The Cub," 1954, 1955, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973 (final issue)

Salt Lick District High School (Burnsville, Braxton, County) "Onimgohow," 1925

Sandstone High School (Summers County) "The Hornet," 1956

Scott High School (Madison, Boone County), "The Walhondean (Vol. 1)," 1935 (2 copies), Senior Handbook, 1936 "The Scottonian," 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1947, 1971.

Shady Spring High School (Beaver, Raleigh County), "The Spring," 1950, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1992, 1996, 1997, 2000

Shepherd College (Shepherdstown, Jefferson County), "The Cohongoroota," 1925 (Vol. 12), 1926, 1949, 1952, 1953, 1957, 1960, 1961, 1961, 1962, 1963 (2 copies), 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1967 (c.2), 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1976

Sherman High School (Seth, Boone County), "The Walhondian," 1941, 1942, 1948, 1949, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1964, 1967, 1972, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1995, 1996, 1998, 1998 (c.2), 2005, 2006

Sherrard High School (Marshall County), "Sherconan," 1955, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961 "The Rambler," 1964

Sherrard Junior High School (Marshall County), "Horizons," 1978

Sherred Hall, (Charleston, Kanawha County), 1907

Shinnston High School (Harrison County), "The Spartan," 1940, 1946 (two copies), 1953, 1954, 1955, 1958, 1963, 1965

Sissonville High School (Kanawha County), "Sissonian," 1969, 1970, 1970, 1972

Sistersville High School, (Tyler County), "The Signal," 1924 (Vol.13), 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1932, 1933, 1936

Smithfield High School, (Wetzel County), "Neemoskeesy," 1922 (2 copies), "Spirit of S.High School," 1949 "The Lion," 1951 "The Gold and Blue," 1953 "Memories of 54," 1954 "The Golden Mane," 1956

Sophia High School (Raleigh County), "The Hawk's Nest," 1946, 1947, 1952, 1953, 1967, 1973

South Charleston High School, (Kanawha County), "The Loudspeaker," 1928 (Vol.I), 1928 "Pentagon," 1930 "Memoirs," 1935 (Vol. 4), 1936, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1950, 1950 (2 copies), 1956, 1957, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1976, 1977

South Harrison High School (Lost Creek, Harrison County), "Talon," 1972, 1977.

Spanishburg High School (Mercer County), "Wildcat," 1973, 1979

Spencer High School (Roane County), "The Rupicola," 1915, 1922, 1924, 1925 (3 copies), 1926 (3 copies), 1927, 1928, 1929 (3 copies), 1930 (2 copies), 1931, 1931 (c. 2), 1933, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1943, 1944 (2 copies), 1945 (2 copies), 1946 (2 copies), 1947, 1948, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1967, 1968, 1970, 1972, 1973, 1976, 1983, 1984, 1987, 1988, 1991, 1993 Alumni Reunion, 2000, 2005

Spring Valley High School (Huntington, Wayne County), "Howler," 2000

Stoco High School (Coal City, Raleigh County) "The Wigwam," 1948, 1973 Independence H. S. (Coal City) 1980 (Vol.4)

Stonewall Jackson High School (Charleston, Kanawha County) "Jacksonian," 1941, 1941, 1942 (2 copies), 1943, 1943 (2 copies), 1945, 1946, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1951, 1952, 1954, 1955, 1956 (2 copies), 1957, 1957 (4 copies), 1958, 1958 (2 copies), 1959, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1977, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989

Stratton High School, (Beckley, Raleigh County) "The Bulldog," 1953.

Sutton High School, (Braxton County), "Tiskelwah," 1921

Terra Alta High School (Preston County), "The Rhododendron," 1912, 1916 "Altonian," 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977

Thomas High School (Tucker County), "Retrospector," 1926 (no pics) "The Altamont," 1949

Thomas Jefferson Junior High School (Charleston, Kanawha County), "The Amateur Reporter," June 1926, October 1926, December 1926, April 1927, June 1930, February 1931, June 1931, January 1932, June 1932, January 1933, June 1933, January 1934, June 1934, June 1941, January 1942, May 1942, January and May 1943 (2 copies), May 1954, May 1955, May 1956

Tolsia High School, (Fort Gay, Wayne County), "Tolsia Pride," 1988 (Vol. 1), 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 2002

Trap Hill High School, (Surveyor, Raleigh County), "The Bannerette," 1931 (Vol. 1), "The Trapper," 1960

Triadelphia District High School (Mingo County), "The Hillbilly," 1930, 1930 (c. 2)

Triadelphia High School (Wheeling, Ohio County) "The Triadelphian," 1921, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1927 (c. 2), 1928, 1929, 1933, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, "The Triad," 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1949, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1970, 1972.

Tunnelton High School, (Preston County) "The Tunneltonian," 1961, 1962, 1963, 1975

Tygarts Valley High School (Mill Creek, Randolph County), "The Tygart," 1924 (Vol.I) "Bulldog," 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971

Tyler County, High School (Middlebourne), 1911-1912 (Catalogue), "The Echo," 1912, 1913, 1915, 1922

Tyler Consolidated High School (Sistersville), "Excalibur," 1996

Unidis High School, (Union District, West Milford, Harrison County), "The Mirror," 1924 (Vol. I), 1925, 1926 (two copies), "Trojan Herald," 1938, 1965 (last issue)

Union High School (Benwood, Marshall County) "The Messenger," 1926, 1932, 1945 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957

Union High School, (Union, Monroe County), "The Cornerstone," 1954, 1955, 1959

University High School (Morgantown), "The Little Monticola," 1999

University of Charleston (Kanawha County) - see Morris Harvey College

Valley High School (Smithers, Fayette County), "Chien Gris," 2001 (Vol. XXIV)

Valley High School (Masontown, Preston County), "Echo," 1965, 1970

Van High School (Boone County), "Vancourier," 1951, 1955 (Vol. VI), 1959, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1972, 1979, 1980

Victory High School (Adamston, (Clarksburg), Harrison County), "The Annual," 1923 (2 copies), 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, "Optic," 1941, 1943, 1944 (2 copies), 1945, 1954, 1964, 1969

Vinson High School (Huntington, Wayne County), "Vinsonian," 1946 (Vol. I), 1948, 1968, 1976, 1979, 1991

W. Ralph Widmyer Elementary School (Morgan County), 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983

Wahama High School (Mason County), "Wahaman," 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1991, 1992

Walkersville High School (Lewis County), "Walkilew," 1937 (Vol. I), 1949, 1951, 1955

Walton High School (Roane County), "The Waltonian," 1951, 1952, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969

Wardensville High School (Hardy County), 1979

Warwood High School (Wheeling, Ohio County), "The War Whoop," 1929, 1929 (c.2) "The Cauldron," 1930 "The Warrior," 1931, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1944, 1955, 1959, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968

Washington High School, (Charles Town, Jefferson County), "Memories," 2009 (v. 1), 2010

Washington High School, (Brounland, Kanawha County), "Washingtonian," 1964 (last issue)

Washington Junior High School (Parkersburg, Wood County), "Venture," 1972

Washington Irving High School (Clarksburg, Harrison County) "Reminiscences," 1916 (Vol. I), 1917, 1918, 1919 (two copies), 1920, 1921 (three copies), 1922 (two copies), 1923 (two copies), 1924 (two copies), 1925 (two copies), 1926 (three copies), 1927, 1928 (three copies), 1929 (two copies), 1930 (two copies), 1931 (three copies), 1932 1933 (two copies) "Memoirs," 1934 (two copies), 1937, 1938 (two copies), 1940, 1941, 1944, 1945, 1947, 1949, 1950 (two copies), 1951 (three copies), 1952, 1953 (two copies), 1954 (two copies), 1955 (two copies), 1956, 1957, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1976, 1978

Wayne High School (Wayne County), "Pioneer," 1963, 1978, 1988

Wayne County High School (Wayne County), "The Nuntius," 1930

Webster County High School (Upperglade, Webster County), "Highlander," 1987, "Highlander Pride," 2000

Webster Springs High School (Webster County), "The Mountaineer," 1916-17, 1929

Weir High School (Weirton, Hancock County), "Onawa," 1927, 1929, 1930 "Weirite," 1940, 1946, 1955, 1957, 1966.

Welch High School (McDowell County), "The Black Diamond," 1926, 1927, "On The Hill," 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1967

Wells High School (Newell, Hancock County), "The Rhododendron," 1941, 1948

Wellsburg High School, (Brooke County), "High Times," 1937 "Welhischa," 1940, 1944, 1952, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965.

West Fairmont Senior High School, "Maple Leaves," 1942

West Liberty High School (Ohio County), "Liber-tee-an," 1936, 1938, 1963

West Liberty State Teacher's College, (Ohio County), "Manatoc," 1926 (Vol. 1) "The Trumpet," 1929, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1933, 1934, 1948 "Winding Road," 1957, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1968 (2 copies), 1969, 1969 (c.2)

West Virginia Conference Seminary (Buckhannon, Upshur County), "Murmurmontis,"1904 (vol.I), 1905

West Virginia Institute of Technology (Montgomery, Fayette County), "The Bear Tracks," 1951, 1953, 1954, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1965, 1966 (three copies), 1967 (two copies), 1968 (two copies), 1969, 1970 (three copies), 1971, 1971 (c.2), 1972, 1972 (c.2), 1973 (three copies), 1974, 1975, 1976 (three copies), 1978 (two copies), 1979 (two copies), 1980 (three copies), 1982 (two copies), 1983, 1984, 1985 (two copies), 1986 (two copies), 1987 (two copies), 1988, 1989 (2 copies), 1990 (4 copies), 1991 (2 copies), 1992 (2 copies)

West Virginia State College, (Institute, Kanawha County), "The Arch," 1958, 1958 (c.2), 1959, 1960, 1960 (c.2), 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967,1967 (c.2), 1968, 1968 (c.2), 1969, 1970, 1970 (2 copies), 1971, 1972, 1972 (c.2), 1973, 1973 (c.2), 1974, 1974 (2 copies), 1975, 1975 (c.2), 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1979 (c.2), 1981, 1982, 1982 (c.2), 1983, 1983 (c.2), 1984, 1986, 1988, 1989 (2 copies), 1990, 1990 (c.2), 1991, 1992, 1992 (c.2), 1993, 1994, 1995 (2 copies), 1996 (3 copies), 1998, 2000 (2 copies), 2001, 2002, 2003

West Virginia University (Morgantown, Monongalia County), "Monticola," Vol. 1 1896 (three copies), Vol. 2 1900 (2 copies), Vol. 3 1900-1901, 1900-1901 (c.2), Vol. 4 1901 (2 copies), 1904, 1904 (2 copies), 1905, 1905 (c.2), 1906, 1907 (2 copies), 1908, 1908 (2 copies), 1909 (2 copies), 1910, 1911 (2 copies), 1912, 1912 (c.2), 1913, 1914, 1914 (c.2), 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1918 (2 copies), 1919, 1919 (c.2), 1920, 1920 (2 copies), 1921, 1921 (c.2), 1922, 1922 (c.2), 1923, 1923 (2 copies), 1924, 1924 (c.2), 1925, 1925 (c.2), 1926, 1926 (c.2), 1927, 1928, 1928 (c.2), 1929, 1929 (c.2), 1930, 1930 (c.2), 1931, 1931 (c.2), 1932, 1932 (2 copies), 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1936 (c.2), 1937, 1937 (2 copies), 1938, 1939, 1939 (c.2), 1940, 1940 (c.2), 1941, 1941 (c.2), 1942, 1942 (2 copies), 1943, 1943 (2 copies), 1947, 1947 (2 copies), 1948, 1948 (c. 2), 1954, 1955, 1955 (2 copies), 1956, 1956 (c.2), 1957, 1957 (2 copies), 1958, 1958 (c.2), 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1967 (3 copies), 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984

West Virginia University School of Dentistry and Division of Dental Hygiene (Morgantown, Monongalia County), "Impressions," 1970

West Virginia University School of Medicine (Morgantown, Monongalia County), "Pylon," 1963, 1964, 1972, 1974, 1976

West Virginia Wesleyan College (Buckhannon, Upshur County), "Murmurmontis," 1904, 1904 (2 copies), 1905, 1905 (c.2), 1906, 1906 (c.2), 1907 (Vol. IV), 1907 (c.2), 1910 (Vol. VI), 1911, 1912, 1914, 1915, 1915 (c.2), 1916, 1917 (two copies), 1918, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934 (Vol. XXX), 1937 (Vol. XXXI) (c.2), 1938 (c.2), 1939 (c.2), 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1963 (c.2), 1964, 1964 (2 copies), 1965, 1965 (c.2), 1966, 1966 (c.2), 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973 (2 copies), 1974 (2 copies), 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008

Weston High School (Lewis County), "The Blue and Gray," 1923 (Vol. I) "The Collicola," 1926 (Vol.II), 1927, 1928, 1929, 1931, 1932, 1937, 1947, 1948, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1967

Wheeling College, (Ohio County), "Manifest," 1964 (Vol. VI), 1965, 1966, 1967, 1967 (c. 2), 1968, 1969, 1976

Wheeling High School (Ohio County), "The Record," April 1915, 1919, 1921, Dec. 1921, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1928 (c. 2), 1929, 1930, 1930 (3 copies), 1931, 1931 (c. 2), 1932, 1933, 1935, 1936, 1943, 1947, 1949, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1965, 1966

Wheeling Park High School, (Ohio County), "The Patriot," 1978, 1983 (Vol.7), 1983 (c. 2), 1984, 1987, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016

White Sulphur Springs High School (Greenbrier County), "Devil's Diary," 1961 (Vol. III), 1962

Whitmer High School (Randolph County), Senior class picture (named individual head shots). 1961

Williams District H. S. (Williamstown, Wood County) "The Maroon and Gold," 1925 (Vol.I), 1926, 1927, 1928, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1948 "Wihishan," 1962

Williamson High School (Mingo County), "The Tug River Breeze," 1921 (Vol. II), 1922 (Vol. III), 1925, 1925 (c. 2), 1930, 1930 (c.2), 1931, 1931 (c. 2), 1932, 1933, 1956

Williamstown Christian School, "The Shield," 1976, 1977, 1979, 1980

Winfield High School (Putnam County), "Memoirs," 1933-1934, "The General," 1949, 1980, 1981, 2002, 2003, 2004

Winfield Middle School, unnamed, 2004

Wirt County High School, "The Elizabethan," 1950, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1957, 1957 (c.2), 1958, 1959, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1980

Woodrow Wilson High School (Beckley, Raleigh County) "The Echo," 1922, 1923, 1924, 1924 (c.2), 1925 (2 copies), 1926 (2 copies), 1927, 1927 (2 copies), 1928, 1928 (c.2), 1929, 1929 (c.2), 1930, 1930 (c.2), 1931, 1931 (c.2), 1932, 1932 (c.2), 1933, 1933 (c.2), 1935, 1935 (c.2), 1936, 1937, 1938, 1938 (c.2), 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945 (2 copies), 1946, 1946 (2 copies), 1947, 1947 (2 copies), 1948 (3 copies), 1949 (2 copies), 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1958, 1958 (c.2), 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1968, 1968 (c.2), 1969, 1969 (c.2), 1970, 1970 (c.2), 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1976 (c.2), 1977, 1978 (2 copies), 1980, 1980 (c.2), 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007

Woodrow Wilson Junior High School (Charleston, Kanawha County), "The Wilsonian," June 1931, January 1932, January 1933, June 1933, February 1934, January 1941, June 1941, 1942 (two copies), 1951, 1953, 1954, 1955 (2 copies), 1957, 1958, 1959

Wyoming East High School (New Richmond, Wyoming County), "The Warrior," 1999

*Denotes artificially created class books

Box 1:
Adamston Junior High
Andrew Jackson Junior High
Barboursville High
Beaver High
Bethany College
Bluefield High
Bluefield State
Bristol High
Burnsville High
Cedar Grove High
Charleston High (2 folders)
Clendenin High
Dupont High
Dupont Junior High
East Bank High
Fairmont High
Fairmont State
Fairview High
Farmington High
Frankfort High
Gary District High
Gauley Bridge High
Gilbert High
Glenville State
Greenbank High
Greenbrier High
Greenbrier Military
Greenbrier West
Hamlin High

Box 2:
Hamlin High
Hampshire High
Hedgesville High
Herbert Hoover High
Huntington High
Hurricane High
Jane Lew High
Jefferson Junior High
Lincoln Junior High
Logan High
Lumberport High
Magnolia High
Marshall High
Marshall University
Martinsburg High
Mercer School
Miller Junior High
Milton Junior High
Montgomery High
Moorefield High
Morgantown High
Morris Harvey College
Moundsville High
Mount de Chantal
New Cumberland High
Nicholas County High
Nitro High
Normantown Junior and Senior High
Northfork High
Notre Dame High
Parkersburg High

Box 3:
Parsons High
Petersburg High
Pineville High
Poca District High
Point Pleasant High
Potomac State College
Princeton High
Rainelle High
Rupert High
St. Albans High
St. Marys High
Salem College
Sand Fork High
Scott High
Shady Spring High
Shepherd College
Sherman High
Sherrard High
Shinnston High
Sophia High
South Charleston High
Spencer High
Stoco High

Box 4:
Stonewall Jackson High
Terra Alta High
Thomas Jefferson Junior High
Towers School
Triadelphia High
Van High
Victory High
Wahama High
Washington Irving High
Weir High
Welch High
West Liberty Normal School
West Virginia State College
West Virginia University
West Virginia Wesleyan College
Weston High
Wheeling High
Williamstown High
Woodrow Wilson High
Woodrow Wilson Junior High

Scrapbooks:
Charleston junior and high schools 1920s
Greenbrier College 1926-27

School newspapers/magazines:
Bristol High School, Bristolite, scattered issues, 1944-1945
Charleston High School, Book Strap, 1934 1939-40 1945-46 1964-66
Clendenin High School, Mountain Echo, 1934-35
East Bank Middle School - 1959-1968, 1973-1979, 1980-81
Fayetteville High School, Vandalia, scattered issues 1940-43
Franklin High School, The Mountaineer, December 1947
George Washington High School, Booklet, 1968
Greenbrier High School, The Gossip, 1948-1954
Lincoln Jr. High School, The Lincoln Log, 1968-70
Mannington High School, Hi-Tower, 1931
Marshall College, Parthenon, 1949
Milton High School, Miltonian, 1935-36
Mountain State College, Mountain Echo, 1952
Nitro High School, Spyglass, 1944-46 Microscope, 1946 Kanawha Valley Leader, 1945
Richwood High School, Woodchopper, 1968
Stonewall Jackson High School, Jackson Journal, 1940-42, Christmas 1950
Thomas Jefferson Jr. High School, School Newspaper, The Amateur Reporter, 1937-38 The Jeffersonian, 1953-1956
Woodrow Wilson Jr. High School, School Newspaper, Woodrow Wilson News, 1950-1953

Oversized documents:
Diploma, elementary school to Frankie Holland, June 15, 1926
Memory book of Bobby Faye Hubb, Parsons High, class of 1940 (includes senior class photo)

Photos:
Barboursville High School
Belington High School composite of senior classes 1948, 1958
Carroll High School, Hamlin, 1933-34 sophomores, 1935 May graduates
Crum High School band 1951
East Side High School, Fairmont
Fairmont High School, Kibo Club 1946
Fairmont State College
Glenville State College
Hamlin High School
Huntington High School reunion
Kanawha Elementary School
Logan High School class of 1936 50th reunion
Magnolia High School
Marsh Fork High School, 1948-1953
Morgantown High School class of 1973 20th reunion
Moundsville High School reunion groups
Mountain State Business College panoramic of Parkersburg with area pointing to school location
New River State School
Paden City High School composite, Class of 1962
Parkersburg High School, panoramic of school and students 1927
Potomac State College, Catamount staff 1948
Rowlesburg High School, cast of play "South is South" 1939
Salem College Class of 1936 at reunion (50th?)
Sherrard Junior High School wrestling team 1978 (2 photos)
Smithfield High School
South Charleston High School Girl Reserves and X-ray staff, both 1928
Stonewall Jackson High School
Thomas Jefferson Junior High School, 8th grade 1954-55
Unidentified
Victory High School
Weir High School band 1966
Wellsburg High School, Composite Class of 1962
West Virginia University, Drivers Education, 1955
Wheeling High School
Woodrow Wilson High School

Oversized photos:
Belington High School, composite class of 1937
Cowen High School, composite class of 1942
Doddridge High School, composite class of 1935
Lost Creek High School, composite class of 1945
Man High School, senior class 1950
Wheeling High School, composite class of 1952, 1953
Whitmer High School, composite class of 1961


Choices People Made: Public Servants

When Governor Faubus withdrew the Arkansas National Guard from Central High, Woodrow Mann, the mayor of Little Rock, asked the fire chief to use fire trucks and high-pressure hoses to control the mob. The chief refused. Mann then called the chief of police for help. He told the mayor he was ill and could not get involved. Next Mann turned to Eugene Smith, the assistant police chief. He said he would personally head the police force the next morning.

Gene Smith was a veteran police officer who had come up through the ranks. When asked his views on school integration, he replied, "That’s out of my province. Our function is to do everything we can to protect life and property and preserve the public peace. And that’s what we do every day."

On September 23, 1957, Smith and his policemen battled over a thousand angry white citizens, as they attacked both black and white reporters and photographers from around the world, broke windows and doors, and threatened the "Little Rock Nine."

Even though Smith was only doing his job, he and his family were subjected to harassment and abuse. So were other police officers who tried to enforce the law.


Woodrow Mann

Major support provided through a partnership with the Arkansas Department of Parks & Tourism.

Major funding provided by the Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation.

Special thanks to the Department of Arkansas Heritage.

Additional support provided by the Arkansas Humanities Council.

Additional support provided by the Arkansas General Assembly.

Additional support provided by the Arkansas Community Foundation.

Additional support provided by the Charles M. and Joan R. Taylor Foundation Inc.

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William Fulbright, the Southern Manifesto and the path to the Central High crisis

On May 7, 1955, Little Rock civil rights activist Ozell Sutton penned an article for the Chicago Defender, perhaps the nation’s most important Black newspaper at the time, boasting of his state’s progress in ending racial segregation. Entitled “Arkansas Leads In Integration,” the piece quoted an unnamed National Association for the Advancement of Colored People field representative calling the state “the bright spot of the South” in terms of implementing the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision prohibiting state-mandated school segregation.

The tragic irony of Sutton’s boast is not lost on those who have paid attention to our state’s history. Only 28 months later, the crisis at Little Rock’s Central High transformed Arkansas into the poster child for massive resistance to school integration. News broadcasts around the globe showed Orval Faubus, Arkansas’s wildly popular governor, siding with thugs and bigots rather than with the nine Black students who comported themselves with staggering amounts of dignity. These images continue to define the state.

When looking for that point at which the progress described by Sutton ended and the descent into the ugliness at Central High began, nothing stands out as much as U.S. Senator J. William Fulbright and the rest of Arkansas’s congressional delegation’s signing of the Southern Manifesto on March 12, 1956. Grounded in an interpretation of the Constitution that gutted the 14th Amendment, especially its equal protection clause, the Manifesto declared the Brown decision to be a “clear abuse of judicial power” and encouraged states and their citizens to resist its mandates.

Fulbright’s apologists like to claim that the senator’s sins during the Central High crisis were ones of omission rather than commission — that he played no significant role in stoking segregationist outrage, but rather simply did little to stop it. But they are wrong. As an author and signatory of the Southern Manifesto, Fulbright provided a false cover of legitimacy to segregationists and emboldened them to defy the Brown decision.

The constitutional interpretation put forth in the Southern Manifesto contradicted the state’s official position that the Brown decision was correct and must be complied with, a position that had undergirded much of the progress described by Sutton. At the time Fulbright signed the Manifesto, polls showed that most white Arkansans disliked the Brown decision and with it the prospects of racial integration, but the state’s nascent segregationist movement had made little progress and attracted only a few followers. Most white Arkansans, it seems, were unwilling to fight integration or doubted that such a fight could be successful. But the Manifesto changed that. By signing, Fulbright and the rest of the state’s delegation — the most powerful and respected leaders in the state — provided the false hope that convinced the protestors that they could prevent the integration of Central High.

Governor Francis Cherry signaled Arkansas’s acceptance of the Brown decision just a day after the Supreme Court’s ruling. He simply declared, “Arkansas will observe the law. It always has.” Likewise, the speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives did not sound happy with the decision, but said, “We’ve got to live with it. We might as well do what we have to do with as little fuss and as much thought as possible.” Arkansas Attorney General Thomas Jefferson Gentry gave a stern warning to a group of East Arkansas leaders: “Desegregation has been declared the law of the land and we are going to have to abide by it.” Both Cherry and Gentry turned down invitations to meetings organized by counterparts in other parts of the South to devise strategies to circumvent the Supreme Court’s decision.

Given the widespread acceptance of the Brown decision’s legitimacy, it is not surprising that Arkansas was the first state of the former Confederacy to witness school districts desegregating. In July 1954, Charleston’s school board unanimously decided to “disband the Colored School and admit the Colored children into the grade and high school” and when classes started on August 23 there was hardly a ripple of unrest. The following week, when Fayetteville High School integrated, the national praise the district received drowned out the single man with a sign who showed up to protest.

Attorney General Gentry more fully articulated the state’s official acceptance of Brown that autumn in a brief filed for the Brown II hearings held to allow the court to hear from southern states about implementing the first Brown decision. The Arkansas brief began by emphasizing “that nothing contained in this brief is intended to bring into question the correctness of the [Brown] ruling.” In accepting the idea that racial segregation laws violated the 14th Amendment’s “equal protection” clause, Gentry stood alone among the attorneys general from former Confederate states, most of them submitting briefs that anticipated the ideas that would find their way into the Southern Manifesto the following year. Gentry did ask, though, that the court allow Arkansas and other states to abolish segregation gradually.

Gentry’s brief provided the rationale for the integration of Arkansas’s public undergraduate institutions. Responding to a request from the college presidents for legal advice about how to respond if Black students requested admission, the attorney general explained in the summer of 1955 that Brown’s prohibition of segregation in “public education” applied to state-supported colleges and universities, invalidated the state law mandating segregation at their institutions, and required them to treat black and white students equally. He added that, if schools did deny admission to students on the basis of race, his office would not defend them in court.

A few of the college presidents greeted Gentry’s opinion with enthusiasm, giving them political and legal cover to proceed with integration. Arkansas State’s Carl Reng — who had earlier helped integrate graduate programs at the University of Arkansas — announced, “We are going to cooperate wholeheartedly with the spirit of the Supreme Court’s decision.” When the fall 1955 term began, Arkansas Tech and Henderson State joined Arkansas State in enrolling their first Black students and the University of Arkansas accepted its first Black undergraduate since the 1870s (there is no evidence that Black applicants were turned away at the other campuses). While these first Black undergraduates faced harassment, there were no organized protests or vocal opposition.

The start of the 1955 school year witnessed the peaceful integration of more Northwest Arkansas districts with a few Black students, but most of the attention focused on the contentious yet successful integration of Hoxie schools. The conflict witnessed school board members committed to doing “right in the sight of God” prevail over an organized opposition determined to prevent Black children from attending the same schools as White ones. As University of Arkansas at Little Rock historian John Kirk has noted, “The Hoxie episode demonstrated how a resilient and determined local leadership, aided by the courts, could implement desegregation.”

The relatively successful Brown-driven school integration efforts encouraged the dropping of the color-line elsewhere in public life. This was most clearly seen in Little Rock, where Mayor Woodrow Mann — elected in November 1955 with Gentry’s backing — desegregated the drinking fountains at City Hall, appointed Blacks to previously all-white municipal boards, and led the effort to charter greater Little Rock’s new bus company, which hit the streets on March 2, 1956, without the infamous signs directing black passengers to the rear. As with the integration of the colleges, very few people made a fuss about the changes in Little Rock, which occurred at the very time Fulbright and the rest of the state’s delegation were deciding whether to sign the Manifesto.

So, while there were certainly vocal pockets of segregationist agitation like those seen in Hoxie, there was no potent statewide segregationist movement when Fulbright crafted the Southern Manifesto. He and other so-called moderates later claimed they had signed the Manifesto because the people of Arkansas demanded it, but that simply was not the case. Polling data from the time shows most white Arkansans preferred to maintain segregated schools. But the early progress toward integration and the anemic state of the segregationist movement suggests that, before March 1956, they generally accepted the Brown decision as legitimate and realized they would eventually have to obey the law.

But Fulbright and Arkansas’s seven other signers of the Southern Manifesto endorsed the myth that legitimized the massive resistance efforts that would culminate on the streets outside of Central High — namely, that the Brown decision was illegitimate, and states and their citizens could and should prevent its implementation.

In her coverage of the signing of the Southern Manifesto, Arkansas Gazette Washington, D.C., correspondent Liz Carpenter made it clear that the signers were playing with fire and that others had warned them. She quoted several of the 31 southern legislators who refused to sign (two from Florida, four from North Carolina, seven from Tennessee, 18 from Texas). One unnamed legislator worried that his colleagues were being short-sighted — concerned only with their immediate popularity and willing to ignore the “long-term liability.” Harold Cooley, who represented North Carolina’s Fourth District from 1934 until 1966, was blunter. He called the Manifesto a “dangerous document” that “holds out the false hope that legal means are available for upsetting the Supreme Court ban [on school segregation].” Carpenter concluded by wondering if the short-term benefits accrued to the signers would be outweighed by long-term damage.

U.S. National Archives and Records Administration SOUTHERN MANIFESTO: Fulbright’s support of it helped legitimize a fledgling segregationist movement in Arkansas.

Just days after Fulbright and his compatriots signed the Southern Manifesto, the state’s most rabid segregationists held a rally in Jacksonville that demonstrated how they would use the Manifesto to help energize their crusade. Rally organizers expected a huge turnout from across the state, securing a centrally located venue that could accommodate a crowd of 5,000, but reporters counted just 87 people at the start of the proceedings. A few more would straggle in. The poor attendance, though, did little to dampen the excitement over the just signed Southern Manifesto. After a series of speeches, one of which demanded that Arkansas’s Blacks be confined to a special reservation, Little Rock’s most prominent segregationist, Amis Guthridge, explained why the Manifesto was a game changer: “We are not going to have trouble with public office holders.”

In the following months, the segregationist movement expanded by leaps and bounds as white Arkansans bought into the myth endorsed by Fulbright that the Brown ruling (and U.S. Constitution) could be resisted. The two main gubernatorial candidates in the summer of 1956 — incumbent Orval Faubus and challenger Jim Johnson — made this myth central to their campaigns. Johnson travelled the state promising white Arkansans that they could protect themselves by ratifying his proposed state constitutional amendment that nullified what he called the Supreme Court’s unconstitutional desegregation decisions. Not to be outdone, Faubus promised that no Arkansas school district would be forced to integrate by the federal courts, and his supporters arranged to have an interposition measure put on the general election ballot. Both segregationist proposals easily passed, a sign that the conversation among white Arkansans had shifted from “How do we best follow a legitimate court decision that we don’t particularly like?” to “How do we fight an illegitimate court decision?”

Scores of Arkansas politicians — some true believers and others seeking political gain — stoked the anger of those who ringed Central High School to stop the nine Black students. The belief that the Supreme Court had abused its authority and the false hope that its ruling could be defied animated the mob that terrorized the Little Rock Nine and prompted President Dwight D. Eisenhower to call in the 101st Airborne.

Cambridge University historian Anthony Badger suggests that Fulbright would not have faced any serious challenge to his reelection in 1956 even had he refused to sign the Southern Manifesto. The senator had the support of the state’s political kingmaker, Witt Stephens. Potential segregationist challenger Ben Laney was a dreadful politician who had lost his last statewide election in a landslide. Fulbright signed the Manifesto, Badger concludes, because he was racist. This interpretation aligns with that of Fulbright’s most respected biographer, the University of Arkansas’s Randall Woods. Woods makes clear that Fulbright did not see Black Arkansans as truly equal to their White counterparts and wanted to prevent school integration. Over the course of his Senate career, Fulbright would vote against other measures designed to promote Black rights, including postwar Fair Employment Practices legislation, the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the 24th Amendment (abolition of the poll tax for federal elections), the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968.

One of the most enduring myths in Arkansas’s history is that J. William Fulbright was a racial moderate and that his signing of the Southern Manifesto was a political necessity. To make these claims, Fulbright’s apologists have to ignore the progress described by Ozell Sutton and ignore the way in which the Manifesto gave credence to a fledgling movement to resist desegregation. Excusing Fulbright’s defiance of the Supreme Court erases the legacies of true racial moderates, men like Carl Reng, Tom Gentry, and those who served on the Hoxie school board.

Michael Pierce, an associate professor of history at the University of Arkansas, is working on a book manuscript about the rise and fall of New Deal/Great Society liberalism in Arkansas. His essays have appeared in the Journal of Southern History, Agricultural History, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, and numerous edited volumes.


Little Rock Nine

A rally at the state capitol protesting the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas

Photo: Library of Congress, U.S. News & World Report Magazine Photograph Collection

The landmark 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education set in motion the racial integration of the nation’s schools. Resistance was widespread across the country and in 1955 the Court issued a second opinion (sometimes known as 𠇋rown II”) ordering school districts to integrate “with all deliberate speed.” In response to the Brown decisions and pressure from the NAACP, the Little Rock, Arkansas, school board adopted a plan for gradual integration, beginning with Little Rock Central High School. 

In the summer of 1957, Daisy Bates, president of the Arkansas NAACP, recruited nine high school students who she believed possessed the strength and determination to face the resistance to integration. They were Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Patillo, Gloria Ray, Terrence Roberts, Jefferson Thomas and Carlotta Walls. In the months prior to the start of the school year, the students participated in intensive counseling sessions on what to expect and how to respond. 

Two days before school opened, on September 2, 1957, Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus ordered the National Guard to bar African American students from entry to the state’s schools, stating it was 𠇏or their own protection.” The next day, federal court judge Richard Davies issued a counter-ruling that desegregation would proceed. 

As the nine African American students attempted to enter the school on September 4, a crowd of angry white students and adults, and the National Guard, were there to meet them. As the students walked toward the front door, the white protesters drew closer, screaming racial epithets and spitting on them. Ultimately the Guard prevented the students from entering the school.

In the days that followed, the Little Rock school board condemned the governor’s National Guard deployment and President Dwight Eisenhower tried to persuade Governor Faubus not to defy the Court’s ruling. On September 20, Judge Davies ordered the National Guard removed from the school and the Little Rock Police Department took over to maintain order. Three days later, the police attempted to escort the students to school but were met by an angry mob of 1,000 white protesters. Little Rock mayor Woodrow Wilson Mann, asked President Eisenhower to send federal troops to enforce integration and on September 24, President Eisenhower ordered the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock and federalized the entire 10,000 members of the Arkansas National Guard, taking authority away from Governor Faubus. The next day, the Army troops escorted the students to their first day of class. 

Legal challenges and protests to integration continued and the 101st Airborne Division stayed at the school the entire year. The nine African American students faced verbal and physical abuse. Pattillo had acid thrown in her face and Ray was thrown down a flight of stairs. In May 1958, senior Green became the first African American to graduate from Central High School. The next year, Little Rock Central High School was closed after local citizens rejected by a 3-1 margin a petition to officially integrate the school. The school reopened in 1959 and the remaining Little Rock Nine students went on to graduate and have distinguished careers in government, the military, and the media. In 1999, President Bill Clinton recognized the nine for their significant role in civil rights history, awarding each the Congressional Gold Medal and in 2009, all nine were invited to President Barack Obama’s first inauguration.  


The Mann Act: How a Law Meant to Help Women was Misused

Charlie Chaplin, 52, being booked on a Mann Act violation in 1944 after having an affair with aspiring actress Joan Barry, 22. The FBI was after Chaplin for giving a pro-Soviet speech at Carnegie Hall. He was acquitted, but felt “empty and hurt.” (AP Photo)

By Joseph Connor
October 5, 2020

An act meant to protect women wound up being a cudgel against common adulterers and men on the FBI’s blacklist

Chuck Berry, rock ‘n roll pioneer. Charlie Chaplin, Hollywood star. Frank Lloyd Wright, trailblazing architect. Jack Johnson, world heavyweight boxing champion. Besides sharing being household names, these four 20th-century icons share a shadier distinction. All ran afoul of one of the most misused and notorious criminal statutes to appear in the U.S. Code: the Mann Act.

Chicago congressman Rep. James R. Mann, voted with the progressives. In 1909, he introduced the White Slave Traffic Act, which would make it a felony to take a woman or girl across state lines for “immoral purposes.” (Library of Congress”

The progressive America of the early 1900s saw sex for hire as a tentacle of an insidious vice trust. This conspiracy, popular thought went, recalled press gangs that once preyed on sailors. Instead of forcing men to serve aboard ship, the theory held, vice lords employed liquor, trickery, and violence to lure women into brothels and hold them there as toys for men. The popular term for sex workers was “white slaves,” initially used by 19th century Caucasian industrial workers to describe life on the factory line.

In 1907, muckraker George Kibbe Turner claimed in McClure’s Magazine that the “keepers of the regular houses of ill-fame have private arrangements with men, who ruin young girls for their use.” Turner described a network active in Boston, New York, Chicago, and New Orleans that sold young women for $50 a head. Chicago prosecutor Clifford G. Roe wrote a book, The Great War on White Slavery: Fighting for the Protection of Our Girls, billed as “the official weapon of this great crusade.” Reformer Ernest A. Bell published War on the White Slave Trade: A Book Designed to Awaken the Sleeping and to Protect the Innocent the cover showed a mother weeping at the vacant bed of a daughter gone wrong. A turn-of-the-century federal investigation claimed that women prostituted themselves because of men “in the business of procuring women for that purpose—men whose sole means of livelihood is the money received from the sale and exploitation of women.” The white slavery scare dovetailed with Victorian morality, which cast women as wives and mothers, viewed only a chaste woman as a suitable wife, and questioned a woman’s ability to resist a sweet-talking man.

State laws were seen as ineffective Congress decided to act. Point man was Representative James R. Mann (R-Illinois), 53, whose district was vice-ridden Chicago. A House member since 1897, he displayed fierce independence. To a GOP elder’s reproach for voting with Democrats during his freshman term, Mann snarled, “I shall always vote as I damn please.” He had earned his progressive stripes by sponsoring the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act, which swept drugstore shelves of many narcotics-laden patent medicines and laid the foundation for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

On December 6, 1909, Mann introduced H.R. 12315, the White Slave Traffic Act, to make it a felony to take across state lines “any woman or girl for the purpose of prostitution or debauchery, or for any other immoral purpose.” Mann, whose name quickly attached itself to the measure, was gunning for organized procurement rings. His bill was designed, the Senate Commerce Committee said, “solely to prevent panderers and procurers from compelling thousands of women and girls against their will and desire to enter and continue in a life of prostitution.”

A 1911 book by Chicago prosecutor Clifford G. Roe, “The Great War on White Slavery: Fighting for the Protection of Our Girls,” created a sensation and was a best seller. (Mary Evans Picture Library.”

However worthy its intent, the Mann Act was imprecise. Nothing in the bill’s language limited its application to commercial sex, organized procurement, or rape. The bill left undefined the inflammatory but vague terms “debauchery” and “immoral purpose.” The wording, broad enough to encompass sex between consenting adults, created a danger of selective enforcement. About the only specific term in the bill was a stipulation limiting prosecution to instances in which state lines were crossed—because Congress had jurisdiction only over interstate commerce.

Rep. Weldon B. Heyburn (R-Idaho) warned colleagues that the Mann Act was impracticable. Heyburn warned that innocent men could be charged with violations without evidence.

Three congressmen warned colleagues they were marching into a swamp. Rep. Harry A. Richardson (R-Delaware) called Mann’s bill “impracticable, vague, indistinct, and indefinite in every respect.” Rep. William C. Adamson (D-Georgia) predicted “a wide field of different opinion as to who was vile and impure and what practices constituted immorality.” Rep. Weldon B. Heyburn (R-Idaho) said he feared the wording could ensnare a railroad conductor whose train carried a prostitute from state to state.

Moral outrage triumphed. The bill was necessary, said Representative Thetus W. Sims (D-Tennessee), to prevent “the taking away by fraud or violence from some doting mother or loving father, of some blue-eyed girl and immersing her in dens of infamy.” Imagining women being “drugged, debauched, and ruined,” Sims said he could not picture what would “justify a civilized man in voting against this bill.” Rep. Edward W. Saunders (D-Virginia) called the white-slave trade “a blot on modern civilization, but the extent to which our supineness has allowed it to proceed, is the crowning disgrace of the twentieth century.” The House passed the bill on January 26, 1910. Senate passage followed on June 25 and President William Howard Taft signed it that day. The Mann Act was law.

The ink had barely dried when, three days later, a New York grand jury that had been convened to analyze the white-slave trade reported finding no evidence of “any organization or organizations, incorporated or otherwise, engaged as such in the traffic in women for immoral purposes.” Muckraker Turner, who had labeled New York City a “leading center of the white slave trade,” admitted to jurors that his articles had been “overstated and deceiving.” The New York Times disdained claims of white slavery rampant as “a figment of imaginative fly-gobblers.”

The alarm over white slavery spread from the print media to Hollywood. In 1913 . the Moral Feature Film Company released “The Inside of the White Slave Traffic which promised to teach “a great moral lesson.” and “demonstrate lurking dangers.” (Pictoral Press Ltd./Alamy Stock Photo)

Even so, calls rang out to enforce the new statute. U.S. Attorney General George W. Wickersham, urging restraint, said he would “refrain from instituting technical or trivial cases” and limit prosecutions to bona-fide white-slave operations. In two years, federal prosecutors got 337 Mann Act convictions, mostly in cases brought against men. Gradually, headline-hunting prosecutors came to see in a loosely written statute and unavoidably salacious coverage a reason to pursue cases against individuals well known and outside the mainstream.

Jack Johnson, who in 1908 had become boxing’s first African American heavyweight champion, was the first celebrity to get a Mann Act going-over. For the headstrong Johnson, “no law or custom, no person white or black, male or female—could keep him for long from whatever he wanted,” wrote biographer Geoffrey C. Ward. Flamboyant and outspoken, the ebulliently black Johnson inspired Caucasian cries for a “Great White Hope” to put him in his place. Boxing had enriched Johnson, whose offense was to think that he should be able to behave as badly as any wealthy white man. In 1912, Johnson, 34, traveled with and bedded Lucille Cameron, 19, a Caucasian. Cameron’s mother, saying she would rather see Lucille in jail than spend “one day in the company of that negro,” blew the whistle. Agents of the U.S. Bureau of Investigation, forerunner of the FBI, arrested Johnson in Chicago. “Negro Pugilist Charged with Abduction of 19-Year-Old White Girl,” a Times headline blared. Cameron refused to cooperate and the case crumbled. Later that year, after she and Johnson wed, an outraged Rep. Seaborn Roddenberry (D-Georgia) proposed a constitutional ban on interracial marriage.

The Bureau of Investigation persisted, soon enlisting another Johnson paramour as a witness for the prosecution.Belle Schreiber, 23, according to the press a “manicure girl and burlesque queen,” testified against her former lover, helping to get him indicted for a 1910 jaunt that took the pair from Pittsburgh to Chicago, while presumably engaging in coitus. Johnson, confident of acquittal, claimed never to have taken Schreiber anywhere, noting besides that consensual sex between adults was legal. The boxer’s certainty evaporated on May 13, 1913, when a clerk in the U.S. District Court in Chicago read the jury’s guilty verdict. The court sentenced Johnson to a year and a day in federal prison. Released on appeal, Johnson, with Cameron–his “white wife,” the Times took care to remind readers—fled to Canada, then to Europe. The exiled Johnson lost his heavyweight crown to white hope Jess Willard in Havana, Cuba, in 1915. Johnson surrendered to U.S. authorities in 1920 and served his time.

The Mann Act’s Commerce Clause-driven focus on interstate travel brought incongruous results. “A village Don Juan may misbehave with all the willing dames in his parish, and then scatter his seed in every other county in the State, with no other punishment than the remorse of contraband pleasure,” the American Mercury noted. “But an occasional sinner who escorts a fair partner into a neighboring commonwealth with fornicative intent, is condemned to several years of sexless confinement.”

“Immoral purpose” was a malleable term, and federal courts disagreed on whether under the Mann Act that intent extended to non-commercial sex. A test case soon arose. In 1913, Drew Caminetti, 27, and Maury Diggs, 26, were longtime pals and local celebrities in Sacramento, California. Caminetti’s father, Anthony, recently had accepted a nomination by President Woodrow Wilson to head the U.S. Bureau of Immigration. Diggs had served as California’s state architect. The two men, each married with families, began running around with Lola Norris, 19, and Marsha Warrington, 20. Diggs and Caminetti took their companions to Reno, Nevada, supposedly promising to obtain divorces and marry the women. Tipped off, perhaps by a spouse, police surprised the couples on March 14, 1913, at a cottage in Reno the men had rented under assumed names and arrested Diggs and Caminetti.

Black heavyweight champion Jack Johnson, center, enraged many Whites. In 1913, Johnson married a 19-year-old White woman. The Bureau of Investigation charged him with the Mann Act he fled to Europe while his case was on appeal. He eventually served his time. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

The case bore no hint of commerce. The indictment charged only that Caminetti and Diggs had intended to make each woman “his mistress and concubine.” In September 1913, a jury found both guilty of Mann Act violations. “If I am a white slaver, 90 percent of the men living are as guilty as I am,” Diggs said. The act’s author had no patience for those who objected to making philandering a felony. “I shed my tears for those who have been led astray, who have been debauched through fear and force,” Mann thundered. “I shed my tears in behalf of the innocent.” Diggs, considered the brains of the operation, drew two years in prison Caminetti, 18 months. Each later divorced, and Diggs married Warrington. Appealing their convictions to the U.S. Supreme Court, Caminetti and Diggs argued that the act covered only “the traffic in women for gain,” not unpaid adultery. The Court decided by a 5-3 vote that the act covered both. To limit Mann Act enforcement to commercial vice, the majority asserted, “would shock the common understanding of what constitutes an immoral purpose.” The three dissenting justices voiced fear that blackmailers would use “the terrors of the construction now sanctioned by this court as a help—indeed, the means—for their brigandage.”

The Mann Act next ensnared architect Frank Lloyd Wright, whose private life had become a spectacle. “Genius that he is in his chosen profession,” the Twin City Reporter noted, “his life so far as the married side is concerned has been one blunder after another.” In 1924, separated from second wife Miriam Noel, Wright, 57, met Olgivanna Milanov, 26. Within a year, Milanov, a ballet dancer, was living with Wright in Wisconsin. The couple had a child. Noel sued Wright seeking separate-maintenance payments, and Milanov for alienation of affection. Wright’s finances were jumbled, and creditors were circling. He and Milanov fled Wisconsin to a cottage near Lake Minnetonka, Minnesota, that they rented as Mr. and Mrs. Frank Richardson. Noel persuaded police to arrest the couple there on Mann Act charges. Lafayette French Jr., the U.S. attorney for Minnesota, declined prosecution, but Noel got her alimony and, Wright bitterly observed, “the ruination she had planned and wrought by the false, sentimental appeal of ‘outraged wife.’” Wright wed Milanov in 1928.

Not all Mann Act cases were vindictive or misdirected. In 1916, the Justice Department reported using the act to put out of business an unnamed individual “known as the ‘boss of the underworld’ in one of the largest cities in the United States.” Non-commercial prosecutions proved knotty, given the statute’s broad discretionary powers. Prosecutors tried to avoid bringing cases whose only factor was extramarital sex, but whatever cases they brought tended to have an extra helping of the lurid or unseemly.

In 1924, architect Frank Lloyd Wright, while separated from second white Miriam Noel, began an affair with ballerina Olgivanna Milanov and had a child with her. The wronged wife had them tracked across state lines and demanded they be charged with the Mann Act. The federal prosecutor refused to press charges. (World History Archive/Alamy Stock Photos)

In April 1918, police arrested a 55-year-old University of Chicago professor for dallying with a woman, 24, whose husband was fighting in France. After her husband shipped out, the woman said, the academic had been “most solicitous for my comfort.” Federal prosecutors dropped the Mann Act case. Local charges still applied, but a municipal judge acquitted the professor. He lost his teaching job. His wife took him back, calling him “a foolish boy.” The soldier and his wife divorced.

In July 1937, authorities in Los Angeles prosecuted John Wuest Hunt, 33, an evangelical cult leader, for luring a juvenile follower across state lines to have sex. “Mr. Hunt told me I was to be the mother of the new redeemer of the world,” the girl testified. “It was to be an immaculate conception.” Hunt was sentenced to three years in prison.

As predicted, the Mann Act did enable abusive prosecution. In 1941, movie star and director Charlie Chaplin, 52, met Joan Barry, 22. Chaplin, a prominent liberal and British ­­sleeping together. In October 1942, to participate in a New York rally sponsored by the Artists Front to Win the War, Chaplin traveled from California with Barry. At the rally at Carnegie Hall, Chaplin gave a pro-Soviet speech. The FBI, which viewed the rally’s sponsor as communistic, invoked Chaplin’s 23-day sojourn with Barry to bring a Mann Act case, threatening Chaplin with not only prison but deportation. At trial in Los Angeles, the director denied any intimacy with Barry on the road. Jurors acquitted him. Courtroom spectators applauded.

Victory brought Chaplin no pleasure. He felt “empty, hurt and denuded of character,” he said. Calling the charges a “bogus piece of legal opportunism,” Chaplin claimed to have heard from U.S. Supreme Court Justice Frank Murphy at a dinner party that an unnamed high-ranking official was out to get him. Indeed, an internal FBI memorandum dated August 26, 1943, quotes FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover as saying that the government should “vigorously” pursue the Mann Act case against Chaplin.

World War II loosened American attitudes toward sexuality, and afterwards Mann Act prosecutions lost favor. Underpinned as it was by assumptions about society having to protect women from themselves, the act became a relic. But its teeth remained sharp.

Nella Bogart, 32, was charged under the act in 1957 for sending two prostitutes from Manhattan to Newark, New Jersey, to “entertain” at a convention. When Bogart’s defense attorney pointed at the men who had hired her to supply the prostitutes and noted that none had been charged, the all-male jury acquitted the self-described call girl in less than an hour.

In 1959, rock ‘n’ roll pioneer Chuck Berry took up with a 14-year-old girl and took her on tour. After a few weeks, Berry tired of the girl and sent her home to Texas. She complained to authorities and Berry faced two trials on Mann Act charges. HE eventually served a year and a half in federal prison. (Bettmann Images)

A case brought against the entertainer Chuck Berry combined the act’s animating spirit and a legitimate violation.In 1959, Berry, an African-American pioneer of rock’n’roll, was touring the southwest United States, steering his Cadillac from town to town to perform “Maybellene,” “Roll Over Beethoven,” “Johnny B. Goode,” and his other hits. That December 1, in El Paso, Texas, Berry, 33, met and hit it off with a Native American girl who had quit school after the 8th grade. Promising the 14-year-old a job checking hats at his St. Louis, Missouri, nightclub, Berry took her across several states as he completed his tour. They stayed together, registering at as Mr. and Mrs. Janet Johnson, copulating in their motel rooms and in the backseat of Berry’s red Cadillac, she claimed later. Berry did put his new friend to work at his club, but on December 18 he fired her, took her to a bus station, bought her a ticket home to El Paso, and said goodbye. She complained to authorities, who charged the married Berry under the Mann Act. At trial in federal court in St. Louis, Berry denied having had sex with the girl, claiming he had hired her only out of charity—but his testimony, biographer Bruce Pegg noted, was evasive and deceptive. The trial judge constantly mentioned Berry’s race. On March 4, 1960, jurors convicted the musician, a decision reversed on appeal based on the trial judge’s behavior. In March 1961, a different judge reheard the case. Convicted again, Berry served a year and a half in federal prison.

The sexual revolution and the women’s movement pushed the Mann Act even more out of step with American society. By the late 1960s, prosecutors were bringing fewer than 100 cases a year, but the Mann Act stayed on the books until 1986, when Congress amended the old statute and wove the update into the Child Sexual Abuse and Pornography Act. The goal, said sponsor Rep. William J. Hughes (D-New Jersey) was “to modernize the offenses and to make them gender neutral.” Vague terms like “debauchery” and “immoral purpose” got the boot, and criminality no longer hinged on any one person’s definition of morality. The act now covers the transport of males and females. Still known informally as the Mann Act, 18 USC §2421 now applies only to interstate travel for the purpose of prostitution or “any sexual activity for which any person can be charged with a criminal offense.” No longer need consenting adults engaging in non-commercial, non-criminal sex fear the Mann Act, which now focuses on its original purpose, human trafficking, thanks to revisions made decades too late for the amateur philanderers arrested, prosecuted, and terrorized under a statute never intended for them in the first place.


Class Notes

Jamaica High School, in Queens, was once the largest high school in the United States. For most of its history, it occupied a majestic Georgian Revival building on Gothic Drive, designed in the nineteen-twenties by William H. Gompert, who had begun his career at McKim, Mead & White. With east and west wings, granite columns, and an elaborate bell tower, the building looked like a state capitol that had been dropped into the middle of a residential neighborhood it sat on the crest of a hill so imposing that planners would have been guilty of pretense had it housed anything other than a public institution.

One evening in June of last year, Jamaica students wearing red and blue gowns gathered with their families and teachers and with members of the school staff at Antun’s, a catering hall in Queens Village, for the senior-class commencement ceremony. Accompanying the festivities was the traditional graduation boilerplate—about life transitions and rising to new challenges—but it carried a particular significance on this occasion, because it was as applicable to the faculty and the staff, some of whom had been at the school for nearly three decades, as it was to the students. After a hundred and twenty-two years, Jamaica High School was closing the class of 2014, which had just twenty-four members, would be the last.

The New York City Department of Education had announced the closure three years earlier, citing persistent violence and a graduation rate of around fifty per cent. Accordingly, the department had begun to “co-locate” four newly created “small schools” in the old building. Advocates argue that small schools can best resolve many of the ills associated with urban education, but the reorganization produced a logistical problem. The schools tended to operate like siblings competing for bathroom time. Access to the building’s communal spaces was at a premium. Unable to secure the auditorium for a graduating class of two dozen, Jamaica High School found itself, both figuratively and literally, pushed out.

Underscoring the indignities that attended the school’s last days was a difficult irony: for much of its time, Jamaica was a gemstone of the city’s public-education system. In 1981, the schools chancellor, Frank Macchiarola, decided to take on the additional role of an interim high-school principal, in order to better appreciate the daily demands of school administration. He chose Jamaica, and was roundly criticized for picking such an easy school to lead. Four years later, the U.S. Department of Education named it one of the most outstanding public secondary schools in the nation. Alumni include Stephen Jay Gould, Attorney General John Mitchell, Representative Sheila Jackson Lee, Walter O’Malley, Paul Bowles, and three winners of the Pulitzer Prize: Gunther Schuller, Art Buchwald, and Alan Dugan. Bob Beamon, who set a world record for the long jump in the 1968 Olympics, graduated with the class of ’65. The school’s closure felt less like the shuttering of a perennial emblem of stagnation than like the erasure of a once great institution that had somehow ceased to be so.

Jamaica had become an institution of the type that has vexed city policymakers and educators: one charged with serving a majority-minority student body, most of whose members qualified as poor, and whose record was defined by chronic underachievement and academic failure. Even so, word of the school’s closure angered students and their families, the community, and alumni. I was among them—I graduated with the class of ’87—and for me, as for many former students, the school was a figment of recollection, frozen in its academic glory. George Vecsey, the former Times sports columnist and a member of the class of ’56, accused Joel Klein, Mayor Michael Bloomberg’s schools chancellor, of “cooking the books,” to make schools slated for closure appear worse than they were, and compared the Department of Education’s closure policies to the nihilism of Pol Pot. Vecsey later apologized for having slighted the suffering of Cambodia, but he held to his contention that Klein ruled by dictatorial fiat. He wrote, in a blog, “The city destroyed a piece of history because of its own failure.”

There are two broadly competing narratives about school closure. The one commonly told by teachers, students, and many parents at underperforming schools centers on a lack of financial and material resources, which insures that the schools will be unable to meet even minimum standards. Strongly connected to this version is a belief that closure functions as a kind of veiled union-busting: shutting a school allows reformers to sidestep contracts and remove long-term teachers.

Reformers view closure as a necessary corrective to what they see as bloated bureaucracies, inept teachers, and unaccountable unions. They argue that urban schools are often too large to give students the attention they need. In 2000, the Gates Foundation began funding education reform, with an emphasis on reducing school size. Nine years later, in an annual newsletter, the foundation reported that its efforts had not met with significant success, particularly with schools “that did not take radical steps to change the culture, such as allowing the principal to pick the team of teachers or change the curriculum.” The foundation also said that it “had less success trying to change an existing school than helping to create a new school.” The reform movement nationwide increasingly saw closure and the creation of new institutions—as opposed to funding and reorganizing existing schools—as the way forward.

Joel Klein, who as chancellor closed seventy-four schools, disputes the notion that institutions like Jamaica failed owing to a lack of resources. Nor does he believe that size is the only issue. “Where there were thriving large schools, we didn’t try to replace them,” he told me. The real problem was that the schools had “started getting many kids who were low-performing and entering high school a couple of years behind.” The solution was to create “a much more intimate and personalized setting for them”—a phrase at odds with the disruption and the discord that often greet the end of a long-established community institution.

Jamaica’s demise became part of the litany of resentments voiced by opponents of school closure across the country. Rahm Emmanuel’s shuttering of nearly fifty schools in Chicago angered black voters and became a major issue in the city’s recent mayoral election. In 2010, Adrian Fenty, the mayor of Washington, D.C., was dispatched in an election that was also a referendum on his schools chancellor, Michelle Rhee, who had closed two dozen schools. Yet that reaction raises another confounding question: Why do communities most in need of strong schools oppose shutting down institutions that are failing them? In demanding that a school remain open, are alumni hewing closer to nostalgia than to current reality? Or is the conversation about school closure really a proxy for something more subtle, complex, and intractable?

The impulse to reform public schools in the United States has existed nearly as long as the impulse to build them. The tides of immigrants arriving at the turn of the twentieth century, and the nativist hostilities that greeted them, imbued educators with an assimilationist mission. At mid-century, schools were instilled with Cold War anxiety the subtext of films like “Blackboard Jungle” and “Rebel Without a Cause” was not only the perils of dissolute youth but also the dangers posed by families and schools that were seen as failing to meet the Soviet challenge. In the civil-rights era, American classrooms were called on to propagate racial equality in the broader society. But no mission completely displaced the one that preceded it, so that, by the end of the century, we expected public education to assimilate students, equalize them, and prepare them to compete globally.

The history of Jamaica High School roughly correlates with the evolving demands placed on public education in New York City. The school was founded in 1892, and, five years later, moved into a small building on Hillside Avenue, with an enrollment of eighty students. Rural Queens County was formally incorporated as a borough of the city in 1898. During the next fifteen years, the Queensboro Bridge opened and the Long Island Rail Road’s Jamaica station was expanded, becoming the largest in the system. Commuting presented a novel alternative to life in the uncorralled bedlam of Manhattan Queens was transformed into a kind of suburb within the city, and the population boomed. Schools citywide struggled to keep up with the demands created by both immigration and population redistribution. In “The Great School Wars,” a history of public education in the city, Diane Ravitch writes, “In the early twentieth century the public school was transformed into a vast, underfinanced, bureaucratic social-work agency, expected to take on single-handedly the responsibilities which had formerly been discharged by family, community and employer. . . . The idea took hold that the public school was uniquely responsible for the Americanization and assimilation of the largest foreign immigration in the nation’s history.” Jamaica’s population reflected the demographic tides in Queens its classrooms were laboratories for the shaping of better Americans.

In 1925, construction began on the new building, the school’s last home, on Gothic Drive. Jamaica took its name from the Jameco, or Yameca, Indians, who once inhabited the area where Kennedy Airport now stands. The name meant “beaver,” and the animal, a symbol of industriousness, was chosen as the school mascot. (When I enrolled, students were grumbling that it was time for a new mascot—particularly the cheerleaders, whose sweaters were emblazoned with the word.) The grand structure, completed in 1927, accommodated thirty-four hundred students.

Over the years, the walls of the east wing became an evolving exhibit of the school’s history, adorned with photographs of generations of students, faculty, and staff. Those from the first decades showed stern-faced young men in football uniforms genial, avuncular-looking teachers in suits and earnest Second World War-era teen-agers, many of them from the growing Greek, Italian, and Jewish neighborhoods to the north and the west of the school. Though racially homogeneous, the student body drew from a cross-section of economic backgrounds. Kids from middle-class Flushing and Kew Gardens sat with students from working-class areas south of the school and others from more affluent enclaves, like Jamaica Estates. By 1950, the No. 7 subway line had attracted families to the formerly sparse expanses of northern Queens, and the school’s enrollment grew to forty-six hundred.

Yearbooks from the fifties show only a few dozen Latino and black students. In 1948, the Supreme Court struck down racially restrictive housing covenants, and a handful of African-American celebrities, including Jackie Robinson, Count Basie, Ella Fitzgerald, and Roy Campanella, bought homes in the exclusive Addisleigh Park section of Queens. (Fame provided only partial insulation from racial resentment in 1952, a cross was burned near the homes of Robinson and Campanella.) Still, eighty-five per cent of the new housing developments in the borough were closed to blacks. Today, the name South Jamaica includes any number of mostly black neighborhoods south of Liberty Avenue, but at that time it was a well-defined sliver of real estate between the more middle-class areas of St. Albans and Ozone Park. It was where most of the African-American population, including the students enrolled at the high school, lived.

During the nineteen-forties, in a series of landmark tests conducted around the country, the psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark demonstrated that black children associated virtue and intelligence with whiteness, and had correspondingly internalized racist stereotypes of inferiority. Robert Carter, an attorney with the N.A.A.C.P. Legal Defense Fund, heard of the Clarks’ work and brought it to the attention of Thurgood Marshall, who was then the legal fund’s director-counsel. Marshall made the Clarks’ findings central to the argument for school desegregation in the Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education. The decision made Kenneth Clark famous (while largely overlooking his wife’s role in structuring the experiment). Clark, who had grown up in Harlem and was a professor at the City College of New York, then turned his attention to the city government, which, he charged, had fostered segregation in the schools.

Arthur Levitt, then the president of the New York City Board of Education, responded that the schools merely reflected residential patterns: children who attended overwhelmingly black schools lived in overwhelmingly black neighborhoods. A Commission on Integration was set up to examine the issue, with Clark as one of the commissioners, and Levitt as co-chair, and it issued recommendations, which were never quite translated into policy. (Clark resigned, but continued to push for integration throughout his career.) In 1959, the Board of Education experimented by sending four hundred students from overcrowded black schools in Brooklyn to under-attended white schools in the Ridgewood and Glendale sections of Queens. The move was met with rancorous opposition and a brief boycott that anticipated the riotous response to busing in the seventies.

In 1949, John Ward, an African-American student whose family had migrated to New York from Virginia after the Second World War, enrolled at the school. Ward’s father was a bus mechanic, and his mother worked as a domestic between them, they earned enough to buy a home in Jamaica. Ward recalls the area as a place where Italian-Americans, Polish-Americans, African-Americans, and Jews lived in peaceful proximity. His house was not far from the grocery store that Mario Cuomo’s parents owned, and Ward, who played baseball as a boy, remembers the future governor from games in the neighborhood sandlots. The area had not yet entirely shaken its rural roots. “There were still people farming there,” Ward told me. “I remember seeing people butcher hogs on Linden Boulevard in the forties and fifties.”

Ward wanted to be a teacher, but Woodrow Wilson, the high school that most blacks in the area attended, was a vocational trade school. So he applied to Jamaica, which had acquired a reputation as one of the city’s strongest academic high schools. Ward initially found the rigor daunting. “My first semester, I failed about three major classes,” he told me. “My father said, ‘If you’re not going to work at school, you’ll have to get a job.’ ” Ward studied hard and spent an extra semester earning enough academic credits to apply to college. He played baseball well enough to be selected for the All-City team in 1954, his senior year. “I don’t really recall there being much racial tension,” he said of the school. “The blacks mostly hung out with other black students, but, being an athlete, I interacted with a lot more of the white students.” For a few years in the fifties, Jamaica’s integrated athletics teams, with their winning records, were a point of pride for the school. In 1954, Ward was elected the school’s first black class president.


Black Women in the Suffrage Movement

During debate over the 15th Amendment, white suffragist leaders like Stanton and Anthony had argued fiercely against Black men getting the vote before white women. Such a stance led to a break with their abolitionist allies, like Douglass, and ignored the distinct viewpoints and goals of Black women, led by prominent activists like Sojourner Truth and Frances E.W. Harper, fighting alongside them for the right to vote. 

As the fight for voting rights continued, Black women in the suffrage movement continued to experience discrimination from white suffragists who wanted to distance their fight for voting rights from the question of race. 

Pushed out of national suffrage organizations, Black suffragists founded their own groups, including the National Association of Colored Women Clubs (NACWC), founded in 1896 by a group of women including Harper, Mary Church Terrell and Ida B. Wells-Barnett. They fought hard for passage of the 19th Amendment, seeing the women’s right to vote as a crucial tool to winning legal protections for Black women (as well as Black men) against continued repression and violence.


Watch the video: VIVA LA MUSICA!! Flim Flam Man 1967 George C. Scott. (July 2022).


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