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Heka Timeline

Heka Timeline


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Heka Timeline - History

HeLa ( / ˈ h iː l ɑː / also Hela or hela) is an immortal cell line used in scientific research. It is the oldest and most commonly used human cell line. [1] The line is named after and derived from cervical cancer cells taken on February 8, 1951, [2] from Henrietta Lacks, a 31-year-old African-American mother of five, who died of cancer on October 4, 1951. [3] The cell line was found to be remarkably durable and prolific, which allows it to be used extensively in scientific study. [4] [5]

The cells from Lacks's cancerous cervical tumor were taken without her knowledge or consent, which was common practice at the time. [6] Cell biologist George Otto Gey found that they could be kept alive, [7] and developed a cell line. Previously, cells cultured from other human cells would only survive for a few days. Cells from Lacks's tumor behaved differently.


Contents

The beliefs and rituals now referred to as "ancient Egyptian religion" were integral within every aspect of Egyptian culture. The Egyptian language possessed no single term corresponding to the modern European concept of religion. Ancient Egyptian religion consisted of a vast and varying set of beliefs and practices, linked by their common focus on the interaction between the world of humans and the world of the divine. The characteristics of the gods who populated the divine realm were inextricably linked to the Egyptians' understanding of the properties of the world in which they lived. [1]

Deities Edit

The Egyptians believed that the phenomena of nature were divine forces in and of themselves. [2] These deified forces included the elements, animal characteristics, or abstract forces. The Egyptians believed in a pantheon of gods, which were involved in all aspects of nature and human society. Their religious practices were efforts to sustain and placate these phenomena and turn them to human advantage. [3] This polytheistic system was very complex, as some deities were believed to exist in many different manifestations, and some had multiple mythological roles. Conversely, many natural forces, such as the sun, were associated with multiple deities. The diverse pantheon ranged from gods with vital roles in the universe to minor deities or "demons" with very limited or localized functions. [4] It could include gods adopted from foreign cultures, and sometimes humans: deceased pharaohs were believed to be divine, and occasionally, distinguished commoners such as Imhotep also became deified. [5]

The depictions of the gods in art were not meant as literal representations of how the gods might appear if they were visible, as the gods' true natures were believed to be mysterious. Instead, these depictions gave recognizable forms to the abstract deities by using symbolic imagery to indicate each god's role in nature. [6] This iconography was not fixed, and many of the gods could be depicted in more than one form. [7]

Many gods were associated with particular regions in Egypt where their cults were most important. However, these associations changed over time, and they did not mean that the god associated with a place had originated there. For instance, the god Montu was the original patron of the city of Thebes. Over the course of the Middle Kingdom, however, he was displaced in that role by Amun, who may have arisen elsewhere. The national popularity and importance of individual gods fluctuated in a similar way. [8]

Deities had complex interrelationships, which partly reflected the interaction of the forces they represented. The Egyptians often grouped gods together to reflect these relationships. One of the more common combinations was a family triad consisting of a father, mother, and child, who were worshipped together. Some groups had wide-ranging importance. One such group, the Ennead, assembled nine deities into a theological system that was involved in the mythological areas of creation, kingship, and the afterlife. [9]

The relationships between deities could also be expressed in the process of syncretism, in which two or more different gods were linked to form a composite deity. This process was a recognition of the presence of one god "in" another when the second god took on a role belonging to the first. These links between deities were fluid, and did not represent the permanent merging of two gods into one therefore, some gods could develop multiple syncretic connections. [10] Sometimes, syncretism combined deities with very similar characteristics. At other times it joined gods with very different natures, as when Amun, the god of hidden power, was linked with Ra, the god of the sun. The resulting god, Amun-Ra, thus united the power that lay behind all things with the greatest and most visible force in nature. [11]

Many deities could be given epithets that seem to indicate that they were greater than any other god, suggesting some kind of unity beyond the multitude of natural forces. This is particularly true of a few gods who, at various points, rose to supreme importance in Egyptian religion. These included the royal patron Horus, the sun god Ra, and the mother goddess Isis. [12] During the New Kingdom (c. 1550–1070 BC) Amun held this position. The theology of the period described in particular detail Amun's presence in and rule over all things, so that he, more than any other deity, embodied the all-encompassing power of the divine. [13]

Cosmology Edit

The Egyptian conception of the universe centered on Ma'at, a word that encompasses several concepts in English, including "truth," "justice," and "order." It was the fixed, eternal order of the universe, both in the cosmos and in human society, and was often personified as a goddess. It had existed since the creation of the world, and without it the world would lose its cohesion. In Egyptian belief, Ma'at was constantly under threat from the forces of disorder, so all of society was required to maintain it. On the human level this meant that all members of society should cooperate and coexist on the cosmic level it meant that all of the forces of nature—the gods—should continue to function in balance. [14] This latter goal was central to Egyptian religion. The Egyptians sought to maintain Ma'at in the cosmos by sustaining the gods through offerings and by performing rituals which staved off disorder and perpetuated the cycles of nature. [15] [16]

The most important part of the Egyptian view of the cosmos was the conception of time, which was greatly concerned with the maintenance of Ma'at. Throughout the linear passage of time, a cyclical pattern recurred, in which Ma'at was renewed by periodic events which echoed the original creation. Among these events were the annual Nile flood and the succession from one king to another, but the most important was the daily journey of the sun god Ra. [17] [18]

When thinking of the shape of the cosmos, the Egyptians saw the earth as a flat expanse of land, personified by the god Geb, over which arched the sky goddess Nut. The two were separated by Shu, the god of air. Beneath the earth lay a parallel underworld and undersky, and beyond the skies lay the infinite expanse of Nu, the chaos that had existed before creation. [19] [20] The Egyptians also believed in a place called the Duat, a mysterious region associated with death and rebirth, that may have lain in the underworld or in the sky. Each day, Ra traveled over the earth across the underside of the sky, and at night he passed through the Duat to be reborn at dawn. [21]

In Egyptian belief, this cosmos was inhabited by three types of sentient beings: one was the gods another was the spirits of deceased humans, who existed in the divine realm and possessed many of the gods' abilities living humans were the third category, and the most important among them was the pharaoh, who bridged the human and divine realms. [22]

Kingship Edit

Egyptologists have long debated the degree to which the pharaoh was considered a god. It seems most likely that the Egyptians viewed royal authority itself as a divine force. Therefore, although the Egyptians recognized that the pharaoh was human and subject to human weakness, they simultaneously viewed him as a god, because the divine power of kingship was incarnated in him. He therefore acted as intermediary between Egypt's people and the gods. [23] He was key to upholding Ma'at, both by maintaining justice and harmony in human society and by sustaining the gods with temples and offerings. For these reasons, he oversaw all state religious activity. [24] However, the pharaoh's real-life influence and prestige could differ from his portrayal in official writings and depictions, and beginning in the late New Kingdom his religious importance declined drastically. [25] [26]

The king was also associated with many specific deities. He was identified directly with Horus, who represented kingship itself, and he was seen as the son of Ra, who ruled and regulated nature as the pharaoh ruled and regulated society. By the New Kingdom he was also associated with Amun, the supreme force in the cosmos. [27] Upon his death, the king became fully deified. In this state, he was directly identified with Ra, and was also associated with Osiris, god of death and rebirth and the mythological father of Horus. [28] Many mortuary temples were dedicated to the worship of deceased pharaohs as gods. [16]

Afterlife Edit

The Egyptians had elaborate beliefs about death and the afterlife. They believed that humans possessed a ka, or life-force, which left the body at the point of death. In life, the ka received its sustenance from food and drink, so it was believed that, to endure after death, the ka must continue to receive offerings of food, whose spiritual essence it could still consume. Each person also had a ba, the set of spiritual characteristics unique to each individual. [29] Unlike the ka, the ba remained attached to the body after death. Egyptian funeral rituals were intended to release the ba from the body so that it could move freely, and to rejoin it with the ka so that it could live on as an akh. However, it was also important that the body of the deceased be preserved, as the Egyptians believed that the ba returned to its body each night to receive new life, before emerging in the morning as an akh. [30]

In early times the deceased pharaoh was believed to ascend to the sky and dwell among the stars. [31] Over the course of the Old Kingdom (c. 2686–2181 BC), however, he came to be more closely associated with the daily rebirth of the sun god Ra and with the underworld ruler Osiris as those deities grew more important. [32]

In the fully developed afterlife beliefs of the New Kingdom, the soul had to avoid a variety of supernatural dangers in the Duat, before undergoing a final judgement, known as the "Weighing of the Heart", carried out by Osiris and by the Assessors of Maat. In this judgement, the gods compared the actions of the deceased while alive (symbolized by the heart) to the feather of Maat, to determine whether he or she had behaved in accordance with Maat. If the deceased was judged worthy, his or her ka and ba were united into an akh. [33] Several beliefs coexisted about the akh's destination. Often the dead were said to dwell in the realm of Osiris, a lush and pleasant land in the underworld. [34] The solar vision of the afterlife, in which the deceased soul traveled with Ra on his daily journey, was still primarily associated with royalty, but could extend to other people as well. Over the course of the Middle and New Kingdoms, the notion that the akh could also travel in the world of the living, and to some degree magically affect events there, became increasingly prevalent. [35]

Atenism Edit

During the New Kingdom the pharaoh Akhenaten abolished the official worship of other gods in favor of the sun-disk Aten. This is often seen as the first instance of true monotheism in history, although the details of Atenist theology are still unclear and the suggestion that it was monotheistic is disputed. The exclusion of all but one god from worship was a radical departure from Egyptian tradition and some see Akhenaten as a practitioner of monolatry rather than monotheism, [36] [37] as he did not actively deny the existence of other gods he simply refrained from worshipping any but the Aten. Under Akhenaten's successors Egypt reverted to its traditional religion, and Akhenaten himself came to be reviled as a heretic. [38] [39]

While the Egyptians had no unified religious scripture, they produced many religious writings of various types. Together the disparate texts provide an extensive, but still incomplete, understanding of Egyptian religious practices and beliefs. [40]

Mythology Edit

Egyptian myths were metaphorical stories intended to illustrate and explain the gods' actions and roles in nature. The details of the events they recounted could change to convey different symbolic perspectives on the mysterious divine events they described, so many myths exist in different and conflicting versions. [42] Mythical narratives were rarely written in full, and more often texts only contain episodes from or allusions to a larger myth. [43] Knowledge of Egyptian mythology, therefore, is derived mostly from hymns that detail the roles of specific deities, from ritual and magical texts which describe actions related to mythic events, and from funerary texts which mention the roles of many deities in the afterlife. Some information is also provided by allusions in secular texts. [40] Finally, Greeks and Romans such as Plutarch recorded some of the extant myths late in Egyptian history. [44]

Among the significant Egyptian myths were the creation myths. According to these stories, the world emerged as a dry space in the primordial ocean of chaos. Because the sun is essential to life on earth, the first rising of Ra marked the moment of this emergence. Different forms of the myth describe the process of creation in various ways: a transformation of the primordial god Atum into the elements that form the world, as the creative speech of the intellectual god Ptah, and as an act of the hidden power of Amun. [45] Regardless of these variations, the act of creation represented the initial establishment of Ma'at and the pattern for the subsequent cycles of time. [16]

The most important of all Egyptian myths was the Osiris myth. [46] It tells of the divine ruler Osiris, who was murdered by his jealous brother Set, a god often associated with chaos. [47] Osiris's sister and wife Isis resurrected him so that he could conceive an heir, Horus. Osiris then entered the underworld and became the ruler of the dead. Once grown, Horus fought and defeated Set to become king himself. [48] Set's association with chaos, and the identification of Osiris and Horus as the rightful rulers, provided a rationale for pharaonic succession and portrayed the pharaohs as the upholders of order. At the same time, Osiris's death and rebirth were related to the Egyptian agricultural cycle, in which crops grew in the wake of the Nile inundation, and provided a template for the resurrection of human souls after death. [49]

Another important mythic motif was the journey of Ra through the Duat each night. In the course of this journey, Ra met with Osiris, who again acted as an agent of regeneration, so that his life was renewed. He also fought each night with Apep, a serpentine god representing chaos. The defeat of Apep and the meeting with Osiris ensured the rising of the sun the next morning, an event that represented rebirth and the victory of order over chaos. [50]

Ritual and magical texts Edit

The procedures for religious rituals were frequently written on papyri, which were used as instructions for those performing the ritual. These ritual texts were kept mainly in the temple libraries. Temples themselves are also inscribed with such texts, often accompanied by illustrations. Unlike the ritual papyri, these inscriptions were not intended as instructions, but were meant to symbolically perpetuate the rituals even if, in reality, people ceased to perform them. [51] Magical texts likewise describe rituals, although these rituals were part of the spells used for specific goals in everyday life. Despite their mundane purpose, many of these texts also originated in temple libraries and later became disseminated among the general populace. [52]

Hymns and prayers Edit

The Egyptians produced numerous prayers and hymns, written in the form of poetry. Hymns and prayers follow a similar structure and are distinguished mainly by the purposes they serve. Hymns were written to praise particular deities. [53] Like ritual texts, they were written on papyri and on temple walls, and they were probably recited as part of the rituals they accompany in temple inscriptions. [54] Most are structured according to a set literary formula, designed to expound on the nature, aspects, and mythological functions of a given deity. [53] They tend to speak more explicitly about fundamental theology than other Egyptian religious writings, and became particularly important in the New Kingdom, a period of particularly active theological discourse. [55] Prayers follow the same general pattern as hymns, but address the relevant god in a more personal way, asking for blessings, help, or forgiveness for wrongdoing. Such prayers are rare before the New Kingdom, indicating that in earlier periods such direct personal interaction with a deity was not believed possible, or at least was less likely to be expressed in writing. They are known mainly from inscriptions on statues and stelae left in sacred sites as votive offerings. [56]

Funerary texts Edit

Among the most significant and extensively preserved Egyptian writings are funerary texts designed to ensure that deceased souls reached a pleasant afterlife. [57] The earliest of these are the Pyramid Texts. They are a loose collection of hundreds of spells inscribed on the walls of royal pyramids during the Old Kingdom, intended to magically provide pharaohs with the means to join the company of the gods in the afterlife. [58] The spells appear in differing arrangements and combinations, and few of them appear in all of the pyramids. [59]

At the end of the Old Kingdom a new body of funerary spells, which included material from the Pyramid Texts, began appearing in tombs, inscribed primarily on coffins. This collection of writings is known as the Coffin Texts, and was not reserved for royalty, but appeared in the tombs of non-royal officials. [60] In the New Kingdom, several new funerary texts emerged, of which the best-known is the Book of the Dead. Unlike the earlier books, it often contains extensive illustrations, or vignettes. [61] The book was copied on papyrus and sold to commoners to be placed in their tombs. [62]

The Coffin Texts included sections with detailed descriptions of the underworld and instructions on how to overcome its hazards. In the New Kingdom, this material gave rise to several "books of the netherworld", including the Book of Gates, the Book of Caverns, and the Amduat. [63] Unlike the loose collections of spells, these netherworld books are structured depictions of Ra's passage through the Duat, and by analogy, the journey of the deceased person's soul through the realm of the dead. They were originally restricted to pharaonic tombs, but in the Third Intermediate Period they came to be used more widely. [64]

Temples Edit

Temples existed from the beginning of Egyptian history, and at the height of the civilization they were present in most of its towns. They included both mortuary temples to serve the spirits of deceased pharaohs and temples dedicated to patron gods, although the distinction was blurred because divinity and kingship were so closely intertwined. [16] The temples were not primarily intended as places for worship by the general populace, and the common people had a complex set of religious practices of their own. Instead, the state-run temples served as houses for the gods, in which physical images which served as their intermediaries were cared for and provided with offerings. This service was believed to be necessary to sustain the gods, so that they could in turn maintain the universe itself. [65] Thus, temples were central to Egyptian society, and vast resources were devoted to their upkeep, including both donations from the monarchy and large estates of their own. Pharaohs often expanded them as part of their obligation to honor the gods, so that many temples grew to enormous size. [66] However, not all gods had temples dedicated to them, as many gods who were important in official theology received only minimal worship, and many household gods were the focus of popular veneration rather than temple ritual. [67]

The earliest Egyptian temples were small, impermanent structures, but through the Old and Middle Kingdoms their designs grew more elaborate, and they were increasingly built out of stone. In the New Kingdom, a basic temple layout emerged, which had evolved from common elements in Old and Middle Kingdom temples. With variations, this plan was used for most of the temples built from then on, and most of those that survive today adhere to it. In this standard plan, the temple was built along a central processional way that led through a series of courts and halls to the sanctuary, which held a statue of the temple's god. Access to this most sacred part of the temple was restricted to the pharaoh and the highest-ranking priests. The journey from the temple entrance to the sanctuary was seen as a journey from the human world to the divine realm, a point emphasized by the complex mythological symbolism present in temple architecture. [68] Well beyond the temple building proper was the outermost wall. Between the two lay many subsidiary buildings, including workshops and storage areas to supply the temple's needs, and the library where the temple's sacred writings and mundane records were kept, and which also served as a center of learning on a multitude of subjects. [69]

Theoretically it was the duty of the pharaoh to carry out temple rituals, as he was Egypt's official representative to the gods. In reality, ritual duties were almost always carried out by priests. During the Old and Middle Kingdoms, there was no separate class of priests instead, many government officials served in this capacity for several months out of the year before returning to their secular duties. Only in the New Kingdom did professional priesthood become widespread, although most lower-ranking priests were still part-time. All were still employed by the state, and the pharaoh had final say in their appointments. [70] However, as the wealth of the temples grew, the influence of their priesthoods increased, until it rivaled that of the pharaoh. In the political fragmentation of the Third Intermediate Period (c. 1070–664 BC), the high priests of Amun at Karnak even became the effective rulers of Upper Egypt. [71] The temple staff also included many people other than priests, such as musicians and chanters in temple ceremonies. Outside the temple were artisans and other laborers who helped supply the temple's needs, as well as farmers who worked on temple estates. All were paid with portions of the temple's income. Large temples were therefore very important centers of economic activity, sometimes employing thousands of people. [72]

Official rituals and festivals Edit

State religious practice included both temple rituals involved in the cult of a deity, and ceremonies related to divine kingship. Among the latter were coronation ceremonies and the Sed festival, a ritual renewal of the pharaoh's strength that took place periodically during his reign. [73] There were numerous temple rituals, including rites that took place across the country and rites limited to single temples or to the temples of a single god. Some were performed daily, while others took place annually or on rare occasions. [74] The most common temple ritual was the morning offering ceremony, performed daily in temples across Egypt. In it, a high-ranking priest, or occasionally the pharaoh, washed, anointed, and elaborately dressed the god's statue before presenting it with offerings. Afterward, when the god had consumed the spiritual essence of the offerings, the items themselves were taken to be distributed among the priests. [73]

The less frequent temple rituals, or festivals, were still numerous, with dozens occurring every year. These festivals often entailed actions beyond simple offerings to the gods, such as reenactments of particular myths or the symbolic destruction of the forces of disorder. [75] Most of these events were probably celebrated only by the priests and took place only inside the temple. [74] However, the most important temple festivals, like the Opet Festival celebrated at Karnak, usually involved a procession carrying the god's image out of the sanctuary in a model barque to visit other significant sites, such as the temple of a related deity. Commoners gathered to watch the procession and sometimes received portions of the unusually large offerings given to the gods on these occasions. [76]

Animal cults Edit

At many sacred sites, the Egyptians worshipped individual animals which they believed to be manifestations of particular deities. These animals were selected based on specific sacred markings which were believed to indicate their fitness for the role. Some of these cult animals retained their positions for the rest of their lives, as with the Apis bull worshipped in Memphis as a manifestation of Ptah. Other animals were selected for much shorter periods. These cults grew more popular in later times, and many temples began raising stocks of such animals from which to choose a new divine manifestation. [77] A separate practice developed in the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, when people began mummifying any member of a particular animal species as an offering to the god whom the species represented. Millions of mummified cats, birds, and other creatures were buried at temples honoring Egyptian deities. [78] [79] Worshippers paid the priests of a particular deity to obtain and mummify an animal associated with that deity, and the mummy was placed in a cemetery near the god's cult center.

Oracles Edit

The Egyptians used oracles to ask the gods for knowledge or guidance. Egyptian oracles are known mainly from the New Kingdom and afterward, though they probably appeared much earlier. People of all classes, including the king, asked questions of oracles, and, especially in the late New Kingdom their answers could be used to settle legal disputes or inform royal decisions. [80] The most common means of consulting an oracle was to pose a question to the divine image while it was being carried in a festival procession, and interpret an answer from the barque's movements. Other methods included interpreting the behavior of cult animals, drawing lots, or consulting statues through which a priest apparently spoke. The means of discerning the god's will gave great influence to the priests who spoke and interpreted the god's message. [81]

Popular religion Edit

While the state cults were meant to preserve the stability of the Egyptian world, lay individuals had their own religious practices that related more directly to daily life. [82] This popular religion left less evidence than the official cults, and because this evidence was mostly produced by the wealthiest portion of the Egyptian population, it is uncertain to what degree it reflects the practices of the populace as a whole. [83]

Popular religious practice included ceremonies marking important transitions in life. These included birth, because of the danger involved in the process, and naming, because the name was held to be a crucial part of a person's identity. The most important of these ceremonies were those surrounding death, because they ensured the soul's survival beyond it. [84] Other religious practices sought to discern the gods' will or seek their knowledge. These included the interpretation of dreams, which could be seen as messages from the divine realm, and the consultation of oracles. People also sought to affect the gods' behavior to their own benefit through magical rituals. [85]

Individual Egyptians also prayed to gods and gave them private offerings. Evidence of this type of personal piety is sparse before the New Kingdom. This is probably due to cultural restrictions on depiction of nonroyal religious activity, which relaxed during the Middle and New Kingdoms. Personal piety became still more prominent in the late New Kingdom, when it was believed that the gods intervened directly in individual lives, punishing wrongdoers and saving the pious from disaster. [56] Official temples were important venues for private prayer and offering, even though their central activities were closed to laypeople. Egyptians frequently donated goods to be offered to the temple deity and objects inscribed with prayers to be placed in temple courts. Often they prayed in person before temple statues or in shrines set aside for their use. [83] Yet in addition to temples, the populace also used separate local chapels, smaller but more accessible than the formal temples. These chapels were very numerous and probably staffed by members of the community. [86] Households, too, often had their own small shrines for offering to gods or deceased relatives. [87]

The deities invoked in these situations differed somewhat from those at the center of state cults. Many of the important popular deities, such as the fertility goddess Taweret and the household protector Bes, had no temples of their own. However, many other gods, including Amun and Osiris, were very important in both popular and official religion. [88] Some individuals might be particularly devoted to a single god. Often they favored deities affiliated with their own region, or with their role in life. The god Ptah, for instance, was particularly important in his cult center of Memphis, but as the patron of craftsmen he received the nationwide veneration of many in that occupation. [89]

Magic Edit

The word "magic" is normally used to translate the Egyptian term heka, which meant, as James P. Allen puts it, "the ability to make things happen by indirect means". [90]

Heka was believed to be a natural phenomenon, the force which was used to create the universe and which the gods employed to work their will. Humans could also use it, and magical practices were closely intertwined with religion. In fact, even the regular rituals performed in temples were counted as magical. [91] Individuals also frequently employed magical techniques for personal purposes. Although these ends could be harmful to other people, no form of magic was considered inimical in itself. Instead, magic was seen primarily as a way for humans to prevent or overcome negative events. [92]

Magic was closely associated with the priesthood. Because temple libraries contained numerous magical texts, great magical knowledge was ascribed to the lector priests, who studied these texts. These priests often worked outside their temples, hiring out their magical services to laymen. Other professions also commonly employed magic as part of their work, including doctors, scorpion-charmers, and makers of magical amulets. It is also possible that the peasantry used simple magic for their own purposes, but because this magical knowledge would have been passed down orally, there is limited evidence of it. [93]

Language was closely linked with heka, to such a degree that Thoth, the god of writing, was sometimes said to be the inventor of heka. [94] Therefore, magic frequently involved written or spoken incantations, although these were usually accompanied by ritual actions. Often these rituals invoked an appropriate deity to perform the desired action, using the power of heka to compel the deity to act. Sometimes this entailed casting the practitioner or subject of a ritual in the role of a character in mythology, thus inducing the god to act toward that person as it had in the myth.

Rituals also employed sympathetic magic, using objects believed to have a magically significant resemblance to the subject of the rite. The Egyptians also commonly used objects believed to be imbued with heka of their own, such as the magically protective amulets worn in great numbers by ordinary Egyptians. [95]

Funerary practices Edit

Because it was considered necessary for the survival of the soul, preservation of the body was a central part of Egyptian funerary practices. Originally the Egyptians buried their dead in the desert, where the arid conditions mummified the body naturally. In the Early Dynastic Period, however, they began using tombs for greater protection, and the body was insulated from the desiccating effect of the sand and was subject to natural decay. Thus, the Egyptians developed their elaborate embalming practices, in which the corpse was artificially desiccated and wrapped to be placed in its coffin. [96] The quality of the process varied according to cost, however, and those who could not afford it were still buried in desert graves. [97]

Once the mummification process was complete, the mummy was carried from the deceased person's house to the tomb in a funeral procession that included his or her relatives and friends, along with a variety of priests. Before the burial, these priests performed several rituals, including the Opening of the mouth ceremony intended to restore the dead person's senses and give him or her the ability to receive offerings. Then the mummy was buried and the tomb sealed. [98] Afterwards, relatives or hired priests gave food offerings to the deceased in a nearby mortuary chapel at regular intervals. Over time, families inevitably neglected offerings to long-dead relatives, so most mortuary cults only lasted one or two generations. [99] However, while the cult lasted, the living sometimes wrote letters asking deceased relatives for help, in the belief that the dead could affect the world of the living as the gods did. [100]

The first Egyptian tombs were mastabas, rectangular brick structures where kings and nobles were entombed. Each of them contained a subterranean burial chamber and a separate, above ground chapel for mortuary rituals. In the Old Kingdom the mastaba developed into the pyramid, which symbolized the primeval mound of Egyptian myth. Pyramids were reserved for royalty, and were accompanied by large mortuary temples sitting at their base. Middle Kingdom pharaohs continued to build pyramids, but the popularity of mastabas waned. Increasingly, commoners with sufficient means were buried in rock-cut tombs with separate mortuary chapels nearby, an approach which was less vulnerable to tomb robbery. By the beginning of the New Kingdom even the pharaohs were buried in such tombs, and they continued to be used until the decline of the religion itself. [101]

Tombs could contain a great variety of other items, including statues of the deceased to serve as substitutes for the body in case it was damaged. [102] Because it was believed that the deceased would have to do work in the afterlife, just as in life, burials often included small models of humans to do work in place of the deceased. [103] Human sacrifices found in early royal tombs were probably meant to serve the pharaoh in his afterlife. [104]

The tombs of wealthier individuals could also contain furniture, clothing, and other everyday objects intended for use in the afterlife, along with amulets and other items intended to provide magical protection against the hazards of the spirit world. [105] Further protection was provided by funerary texts included in the burial. The tomb walls also bore artwork, such as images of the deceased eating food that were believed to allow him or her to magically receive sustenance even after the mortuary offerings had ceased. [106]

Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods Edit

The beginnings of Egyptian religion extend into prehistory, though evidence for them comes only from the sparse and ambiguous archaeological record. Careful burials during the Predynastic period imply that the people of this time believed in some form of an afterlife. At the same time, animals were ritually buried, a practice which may reflect the development of zoomorphic deities like those found in the later religion. [107] The evidence is less clear for gods in human form, and this type of deity may have emerged more slowly than those in animal shape. Each region of Egypt originally had its own patron deity, but it is likely that as these small communities conquered or absorbed each other, the god of the defeated area was either incorporated into the other god's mythology or entirely subsumed by it. This resulted in a complex pantheon in which some deities remained only locally important while others developed more universal significance. [108] [109]

The Early Dynastic Period began with the unification of Egypt around 3000 BC. This event transformed Egyptian religion, as some deities rose to national importance and the cult of the divine pharaoh became the central focus of religious activity. [110] Horus was identified with the king, and his cult center in the Upper Egyptian city of Nekhen was among the most important religious sites of the period. Another important center was Abydos, where the early rulers built large funerary complexes. [111]

Old and Middle Kingdoms Edit

During the Old Kingdom, the priesthoods of the major deities attempted to organize the complicated national pantheon into groups linked by their mythology and worshipped in a single cult center, such as the Ennead of Heliopolis, which linked important deities such as Atum, Ra, Osiris, and Set in a single creation myth. [112] Meanwhile, pyramids, accompanied by large mortuary temple complexes, replaced mastabas as the tombs of pharaohs. In contrast with the great size of the pyramid complexes, temples to gods remained comparatively small, suggesting that official religion in this period emphasized the cult of the divine king more than the direct worship of deities. The funerary rituals and architecture of this time greatly influenced the more elaborate temples and rituals used in worshipping the gods in later periods. [113]

Early in the Old Kingdom, Ra grew in influence, and his cult center at Heliopolis became the nation's most important religious site. [114] By the Fifth Dynasty, Ra was the most prominent god in Egypt and had developed the close links with kingship and the afterlife that he retained for the rest of Egyptian history. [115] Around the same time, Osiris became an important afterlife deity. The Pyramid Texts, first written at this time, reflect the prominence of the solar and Osirian concepts of the afterlife, although they also contain remnants of much older traditions. [116] The texts are an extremely important source for understanding early Egyptian theology. [117]

In the 22nd century BC, the Old Kingdom collapsed into the disorder of the First Intermediate Period. Eventually rulers from Thebes reunified the Egyptian nation in the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055–1650 BC). These Theban pharaohs initially promoted their patron god Montu to national importance, but during the Middle Kingdom, he was eclipsed by the rising popularity of Amun. [118] In this new Egyptian state, personal piety grew more important and was expressed more freely in writing, a trend that continued in the New Kingdom. [119]

New Kingdom Edit

The Middle Kingdom crumbled in the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1650–1550 BC), but the country was again reunited by Theban rulers, who became the first pharaohs of the New Kingdom. Under the new regime, Amun became the supreme state god. He was syncretized with Ra, the long-established patron of kingship and his temple at Karnak in Thebes became Egypt's most important religious center. Amun's elevation was partly due to the great importance of Thebes, but it was also due to the increasingly professional priesthood. Their sophisticated theological discussion produced detailed descriptions of Amun's universal power. [120] [121]

Increased contact with outside peoples in this period led to the adoption of many Near Eastern deities into the pantheon. At the same time, the subjugated Nubians absorbed Egyptian religious beliefs, and in particular, adopted Amun as their own. [122]

The New Kingdom religious order was disrupted when Akhenaten acceded, and replaced Amun with the Aten as the state god. Eventually, he eliminated the official worship of most other gods and moved Egypt's capital to a new city at Amarna. This part of Egyptian history, the Amarna Period, is named after this. In doing so, Akhenaten claimed unprecedented status: only he could worship the Aten, and the populace directed their worship toward him. The Atenist system lacked well-developed mythology and afterlife beliefs, and the Aten seemed distant and impersonal, so the new order did not appeal to ordinary Egyptians. [123] Thus, many probably continued to worship the traditional gods in private. Nevertheless, the withdrawal of state support for the other deities severely disrupted Egyptian society. [124] Akhenaten's successors restored the traditional religious system, and eventually, they dismantled all Atenist monuments. [125]

Before the Amarna Period, popular religion had trended toward more personal relationships between worshippers and their gods. Akhenaten's changes had reversed this trend, but once the traditional religion was restored, there was a backlash. The populace began to believe that the gods were much more directly involved in daily life. Amun, the supreme god, was increasingly seen as the final arbiter of human destiny, the true ruler of Egypt. The pharaoh was correspondingly more human and less divine. The importance of oracles as a means of decision-making grew, as did the wealth and influence of the oracles' interpreters, the priesthood. These trends undermined the traditional structure of society and contributed to the breakdown of the New Kingdom. [126] [127]

Later periods Edit

In the 1st millennium BC, Egypt was significantly weaker than in earlier times, and in several periods foreigners seized the country and assumed the position of pharaoh. The importance of the pharaoh continued to decline, and the emphasis on popular piety continued to increase. Animal cults, a characteristically Egyptian form of worship, became increasingly popular in this period, possibly as a response to the uncertainty and foreign influence of the time. [128] Isis grew more popular as a goddess of protection, magic, and personal salvation, and became the most important goddess in Egypt. [129]

In the 4th century BC, Egypt became a Hellenistic kingdom under the Ptolemaic dynasty (305–30 BC), which assumed the pharaonic role, maintaining the traditional religion and building or rebuilding many temples. The kingdom's Greek ruling class identified the Egyptian deities with their own. [130] From this cross-cultural syncretism emerged Serapis, a god who combined Osiris and Apis with characteristics of Greek deities, and who became very popular among the Greek population. Nevertheless, for the most part the two belief systems remained separate, and the Egyptian deities remained Egyptian. [131]

Ptolemaic-era beliefs changed little after Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire in 30 BC, with the Ptolemaic kings replaced by distant emperors. [130] The cult of Isis appealed even to Greeks and Romans outside Egypt, and in Hellenized form it spread across the empire. [132] In Egypt itself, as the empire weakened, official temples fell into decay, and without their centralizing influence religious practice became fragmented and localized. Meanwhile, Christianity spread across Egypt, and in the third and fourth centuries AD, edicts by Christian emperors and iconoclasm by local Christians eroded traditional beliefs. While it persisted among the populace for some time, Egyptian religion slowly faded away. [133]

Legacy Edit

Egyptian religion produced the temples and tombs which are ancient Egypt's most enduring monuments, but it also influenced other cultures. In pharaonic times many of its symbols, such as the sphinx and winged solar disk, were adopted by other cultures across the Mediterranean and Near East, as were some of its deities, such as Bes. Some of these connections are difficult to trace. The Greek concept of Elysium may have derived from the Egyptian vision of the afterlife. [134] In late antiquity, the Christian conception of Hell was most likely influenced by some of the imagery of the Duat. Egyptian beliefs also influenced or gave rise to several esoteric belief systems developed by Greeks and Romans, who considered Egypt as a source of mystic wisdom. Hermeticism, for instance, derived from the tradition of secret magical knowledge associated with Thoth. [135]

Modern times Edit

Traces of ancient beliefs remained in Egyptian folk traditions into modern times, but its influence on modern societies greatly increased with the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria in 1798 and their seeing the monuments and images. As a result of it, Westerners began to study Egyptian beliefs firsthand, and Egyptian religious motifs were adopted into Western art. [136] [137] Egyptian religion has since had a significant influence in popular culture. Due to continued interest in Egyptian beliefs, in the late 20th century, several new religious groups going under the blanket term of Kemetism have formed based on different reconstructions of ancient Egyptian religion. [138]


The Windover Bog Bodies, Among the Greatest Archeological Discoveries Ever Unearthed in the United States

It was only after the bones were declared very old and not the product of a mass murder that the 167 bodies found in a pond in Windover, Florida began to stir up excitement in the archeological world. Researchers from Florida State University came to the site, thinking some more Native American bones had been unearthed in the swamplands. They were guessing the bones were 500-600 years old. But then the bones were radiocarbon dated. It turns out the corpses ranged from 6,990 to 8,120 years old. It was then that the academic community became incredibly excited. The Windover Bog has proven to be one of the most important archeological finds in the United States.

In 1982, Steve Vanderjagt, the man who made the find, was using a backhoe to demuck the pond for the development of a new subdivision located about halfway between Disney World and Cape Canaveral. Vanderjagt was confused by the large number of rocks in the pond as that area of Florida was not known to be particularly rocky. Getting out of his backhoe, Vanderjagt went to investigate and almost immediately realized that he had unearthed a huge pile of bones. He called the authorities right away. It was only thanks to his natural curiosity that the site was preserved. After the medical examiners declared them ancient, the specialists from Florida State University were summoned (another brilliant move by Vanderjagt- too often sites are ruined because experts are not called). Deeply intrigued, EKS Corporation, the developers of the site, financed the radiocarbon dating. Once the striking dates were revealed, the State of Florida providing a grant for the excavation.

Unlike the human remains found in European bogs, the Florida bodies are only skeletons – no flesh remains on the bones. But this does not negate their significance. Nearly half of the skulls contained brain matter. The majority of the skeletons were found lying on their left sides with their heads pointing westward, perhaps toward the setting sun, and their faces pointing to the north. Most had their legs tucked up, as in the fetal position, however three were lying straight. Interestingly, each corpse had a stake thrust through the loose fabric that enshrouded them, presumably to prevent them from floating to the surface of the water as decomposition filled them with air. This practical step was what ultimately protected the bodies from scavengers (animals and grave robbers) and kept them in their intended positions.

The find provides unparalleled insight into a hunter-gather community that existed 3,500 years before the Pyramids were built in Egypt. The skeletons and the artifacts found with them have been studied almost continuously in the decades since their discovery. The research paints a picture of a hard but good life in pre-Columbian Florida. Though living mainly off what they could hunt and gather, the community was sedentary, indicating that whatever hardships they may have faced were small compared with the benefits of the area they chose to settle in.

Theirs was an incredibly caring society. Children’s bodies were almost all found to have small toys in their arms. One older woman, perhaps 50, showed signs of having several broken bones. The fractures occurred several years before her death, meaning that despite her handicap the other villagers cared for her and helped her even when she could no longer contribute significantly to the workload. Another body, that of a 15-year-old boy, showed that he was a victim of spina bifida, a crippling birth defect where the vertebrae do not grow together properly around the spinal cord. Despite his many deformed bones, evidence suggests he was loved and cared for throughout his life. These discoveries are mind boggling when one considers how many ancient (and even a few modern) societies abandon the weak and deformed.

Contents found within the corpses’ as well as other organic remains found in the bog reveal an ecosystem rich in diversity. 30 species of edible and/or medicinal plants were identified by paleobotanists berries and small fruits were particularly important to the community’s diet. One woman, perhaps 35 years old, was found with a concoction of elderberry, nightshade, and holly in the area where her stomach would have been, suggesting that she was eating medicinal herbs to try and combat an illness. Unfortunately, the combination did not work and whatever afflicted the woman ultimately took her life. Interestingly, the elderberry woman was one of the few bodies stretched out, as opposed to curled up, with her face pointing downward. In other Native American traditions, elderberries were used to fight viral infections.

Another striking difference between the Windover bog people and their European counterparts is that none of the Floridians suffered violent deaths. The bodies include men, women, and children. Roughly half of the bodies were younger than 20 years old when they died but some were well over 70 years old. This was fairly good mortality rate for the place and time. The presence of brain matter in 91 of the bodies suggests that they were buried quickly, within 48 hours of death. Scientists know this because, given the hot humid climate of Florida, brains would have liquefied in bodies not buried quickly.

Somewhat amazingly, DNA analysis of the remains show that these bodies share no biological affiliation with the more modern Native American groups known to have lived in the area. Recognizing the limitations of modern technology, about half of the Windover site was left intact, as a protected National Historic Landmark, so that in 50 or 100 years’ researchers could return to the bog and excavate untouched remains.


Page 1: Biography

This biography, written by Angela Ballara, was first published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography in 1990. It was translated into te reo Māori by the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography team.

Hongi Hika was born near Kaikohe, in northern New Zealand: he told French explorers in 1824 that he had been born in the year of Marion du Fresne's death, which was in 1772 and he was a mature man at the height of his powers when he died in 1828. He was the third son of Te Hōtete, born of his second wife, Tuhikura, of Ngāti Rēhia. He was descended through nine generations from Rāhiri, the ancestor of Ngāti Rāhiri, who was in turn descended from Puhi-moana-ariki, the ancestor of Ngāpuhi. In addition to Ngāti Rāhiri and Ngāti Rēhia he was most closely associated with Ngāti Tautahi and Ngāi Tāwake.

The defeat of Ngāpuhi by Ngāti Whātua in the battle of Moremonui, at Maunganui Bluff, in 1807 or 1808, was an important event in Hongi's early life. Pōkaia, the uncle of Hōne Heke, had been at war with Te Roroa and two closely related Ngāti Whātua hapū for a long period. Although some Ngāpuhi were armed with muskets, Murupaenga, leader of Ngāti Whātua, successfully ambushed them, taking advantage of the time they needed to reload their weapons. Pōkaia was killed, together with the fathers of Te Whareumu, Manu (Rewa) and Te Koikoi, and two of Hongi's brothers. Hongi and Te Koikoi saved themselves by hiding in a swamp. At nightfall they and a handful of others were able to escape. After this battle Hongi appears to have succeeded Pōkaia as war leader. These experiences left Hongi with an obligation and strong personal wish to avenge the Ngāpuhi defeat. In campaigns against Te Roroa, Te Rarawa and Te Aupōuri in the north he became convinced of the usefulness of the new muskets, if employed in sufficient numbers. By 1815 Hongi was the undisputed leader of his people. His oldest brother, Kaingaroa, born to their father's first wife, Waitohirangi, died in that year.

Hongi eagerly sought contact and trade with European visitors he went to Sydney on the Active in 1814, a visit which encouraged Samuel Marsden, the chaplain of New South Wales, to go ahead with his plan to establish a Church Missionary Society mission at the Bay of Islands. The mission was set up in the same year, under Hongi's protection, and as a result ships came in increasing numbers. In this way the missionaries served Hongi's purposes. Hongi protected missionaries and seamen alike against his own people. He knew that a reputation for peace and security would draw Europeans into his sphere of influence and increase his opportunities to trade food and supplies for European technology, including tools and weapons. Other mission stations were established under his protection at Kerikeri and Waimate North.

But Hongi's relationship with the missionaries brought him difficulties as well as advantages. Other leaders began to protest to Marsden about Hongi's monopoly. The missionaries, for their part, angered Hongi by refusing to trade in muskets or even to repair them, and by shunning the missionary Thomas Kendall for his affair with a Māori woman. Nevertheless he continued to protect them. If they were to withdraw, the reputation of the Bay of Islands as a safe anchorage would suffer, and Hongi's opportunities for trade would decline. He was pursuing his own interests, not those of the missionaries.

Although Hongi Hika preferred muskets and powder as trade goods, he also appreciated the iron tools offered by the missionaries. Agricultural implements, put to use by the great numbers of captives taken in the south in Hongi's campaigns from 1818 on, enabled him to bring about an agricultural revolution in terms of crops and productivity. Hongi experimented with the growing of wheat and corn on his Waimate land. But his main effort was to grow huge crops of potatoes to exchange for muskets and powder with the European ships. The prices of the desired goods gradually altered in his favour, but there are accounts that some of his people died of starvation while others were still selling pork and potatoes.

Hongi visited England in 1820, with Kendall and the young chief Waikato. At Cambridge they assisted Professor Samuel Lee with the compilation of a Māori dictionary they were made much of in society, and introduced to George IV. But Hongi's main aim, in which he was eventually successful, was to acquire muskets. He was also given a suit of armour, which gained him a reputation for invulnerability, and helped to demoralise his foes.

These acquisitions altered the balance of power in the Bay of Islands, and prompted an arms race, with important consequences for the greater part of New Zealand over the next two decades. First, other Bay of Islands communities armed themselves with muskets in self-defence against Hongi's hapū. Then, the heavily armed northern tribes attacked those to the south, who had few or none of the new weapons. The muskets were often faulty and inefficient, and the numbers of their victims exaggerated in many accounts, but tribes who had only heard of these terrible weapons lived in great fear panic contributed much to Ngāpuhi victories and the disruption of social life. Captives were used to produce more supplies to exchange for more weapons. The spiral of war, trade and more war reached a high point in the early 1820s.

Hongi's military genius flowered. In 1818, in an enormously successful campaign, Hongi and Te Morenga had led their separate forces against different objectives. However, from 1821 to 1823, inspired by Hongi, combined expeditions of hundreds of warriors left the Bay of Islands and Hokianga, each section led by their own leaders but aiming at a common goal. In 1821 Hongi led an expedition against Te Hīnaki of Ngāti Pāoa at Mauinaina pā, on the Tāmaki isthmus, and moved on to attack Ngāti Maru at Te Tōtara pā, near present day Thames. The next year the northern tribes again combined to attack the Waikato tribes, gathered under their chiefs, including Te Wherowhero, at Matakitaki pā, near Pirongia, which was taken many died when a rush to escape the shooting resulted in panic. In 1823, after hauling canoes overland for 12 days, the combined forces attacked Ngāti Whakaue and other Te Arawa on Mokoia Island, Rotorua.

All these campaigns were highly successful. Directly or indirectly they caused a considerable loss of population on some occasions the casualties among the defeated were very great. Further, the campaigns placed intense pressure on the peoples of the Waitematā, Bay of Plenty, Tauranga, Coromandel and Waikato regions. This, combined with similar pressure exerted on the west coast by earlier Hokianga expeditions, began a series of wars and migrations which, in the 1820s and 1830s, set almost the whole of the North Island on the move, caused numerous wars and expeditions in both the North and South Islands, and eventually brought about a major redistribution of population.

Hongi, of course, had not planned all of these results. Although some missionaries had encouraged the idea of Hongi as a Māori king, he was not a conqueror, and made no effort to occupy the territory of those he fought against. Although the means he adopted to gain his goals were new and had unprecedented success, the goals themselves were not new. They were set firmly within the traditional framework of intertribal relations.

Hongi was not exclusively a man of war. At home he was a mild, gentle and courteous man. He supervised the planting and harvesting of crops he worked alongside his people with their fishing nets. He had two or more wives he treated his blind senior wife, Turikatuku, with kindness, and was said to take her advice on strategic as well as on everyday matters. Her sister, Tangiwhare, was another of his wives. He was a loving father to his children, five of whom survived him. The death of his eldest son, Hāre Hongi, in 1825 left him depressed and disturbed. Although missionary witnesses were horrified by the killing of captives when the expeditions returned to the Bay of Islands, Hongi was performing a traditional action, to sustain the mana of those who had been lost on his own side.

Hongi's ambition to redress the balance between his people and Ngāti Whātua was partly fulfilled in 1825 when Ngāpuhi, despite the loss of their canoes, set on fire by the enemy, won decisively at the battle known as Te Ika-ā-ranganui, at the junction of the Kaiwaka River and the Waimake Stream. Some accounts say that 1,000 Ngāti Whātua died for the loss of only 70 Ngāpuhi. But Hongi himself said that only 100 of the enemy were killed. And among Ngāpuhi dead was his own son. To avenge his death Hongi led further expeditions against Ngāti Whātua remnants scattered deep in Waikato. His own people began to complain that he would never be satisfied.

From that time on his life was a troubled one. He was laid low with a growth on his knee one of his wives committed adultery with his son-in-law he was still grieving for his son. As one misfortune followed another some of his own people came to believe he was the victim of witchcraft. The missionaries thought he was very unsettled and 'always seeking for some new object'.

He decided to move from Waimate to Whangaroa in 1826, asserting the rights of his father's people. He had, in any case, a number of reasons for taking action against the people there, Ngāti Uru and Ngāti Pou. They had plundered the brig Mercury, and constantly harassed the Wesleyan mission at Whangaroa with threats and pilfering. Hongi valued the presence of Europeans to protect them he decided to punish the Whangaroa people.

In 1827 his war expedition reached Whangaroa. Some local inhabitants fled immediately others were driven off. As they left, Ngāti Uru sacked the Wesleyan mission. But Hongi himself was the chief casualty a ball from a musket, the weapon he had helped to introduce, passed through his chest. To make matters worse, Turikatuku, his wife, died a few days after he was wounded.

The last year of his life was even more troubled. There were frequent struggles between those of his people who had stayed at Waimate and those who had gone to Whangaroa. He was still feared by people who expected him to attack them but some of his own people called him 'an old woman' and said that they cared nothing for him.

He still planned for the future. He tried to tempt the missionaries James Kemp and George Clarke to come to Whangaroa, believing that their presence would attract shipping. He planned a Waikato expedition to avenge the death of Pōmare I in 1826. He schemed to capture the anchorage at Kororāreka (Russell), popular with the visiting ships. He died from his bullet wound on 3 March 1828, at Whangaroa. The missionaries at Waimate and Kerikeri thought the fact that he had died at Whangaroa would spare them from a plundering expedition. His successors, however, concealed his death for fear of such an expedition, until Patuone reassured them. Then, this fear removed, his people paid him honour for some days before burying him. The final resting place of his bones was a carefully guarded secret.


Commercial Success and Expansion

Wang first received international attention during the 1994 Olympics when she designed a hand-beaded ensemble for figure skater Nancy Kerrigan. Wang has since introduced an equally popular line of elegant evening wear, as well as Vera Wang Made to Order.

In 2001, Wang launched her first fragrance and published a highly anticipated wedding guide. Over the years, her business has expanded to include lingerie, jewelry, home products and even desserts. In 2006, Wang teamed with Kohl&aposs, a chain of department stores, to produce an affordable line of ready-to-wear clothing called Simply Vera. She has also reached licensing agreements with Zales, David&aposs Bridal and Men&aposs Wearhouse.

By balancing modern designs with traditional elegance, Wang has acquired a large following, particularly in Hollywood. Her fashions are frequently worn to film premieres and award ceremonies by a number of high-profile actresses, including Halle Berry, Goldie Hawn, Charlize Theron, Anjelica Huston and Meg Ryan.

Celebrating 30 years in the business, Wang staged an anniversary show during New York Fashion Week in September 2019. The following month, she debuted her 60th bridal collection.


Yamaha Stage Custom Timeline

I was looking for some information on old Yamaha Stage Customs and I had to do a long search on the web before I found my answer. I remember doing the same thing earlier and I started thinking there should be a Stage Custom timeline where you could check when a specific model was made and which specs it had. It's hard to keep up with the series because it has had so many changes during its existence. So I thought we'd join our forces and collect as much data as possible. Here's what I've gathered so far. If you have any additional info or If you spot any inaccuracys, please let me know and I'll edit the post. So here we go:

Yamaha Stage Custom timeline

Stage Custom (6000-series)
-1995-2001
-Badge: glued, square, golden bkground, black center, text “Stage Custom”
-First made in Japan then moved to Indonesia
-Tom mounts: non-YESS
-Lugs: High Tension
-Wood: Outer ply birch, 6-plies of Philippine mahogany in the middle, inner ply falkata

Stage Custom Standard (5000-series), Stage Custom Advantage (6000-series)
-2001-2004
-Standard=matte finish, Advantage=gloss finish
-Badge: 4 screws, narrow at the bottom, widens going upwards, golden bkground, black center, text “Stage Custom Standard” or “Stage Custom Advantage”
-Made in Indonesia
-Tom mounts: YESS (YESS floor tom brackets only on Advantage model)
-Lugs: Standard: split, Advantage: both high tension and split lug versions exist
-Wood Standard: outer ply birch, inner plies Philippine mahogany
-Wood Advantage: outer ply birch, middle plies Philippine mahogany, inner ply falkata

Stage Custom Advantage Nouveau (6000-series)
-2004-2008
-Badge: 4 screws, square, silver bkground, horizontal blue stripe in the middle, text “Stage Custom Advantage Nouveau”
-Made in Indonesia
-Tom mounts: YESS (all floor tom brackets are YESS)
-Lugs: Nouveau (composite/plastic)
-Wood outer ply: birch (gloss finishes), oak (matte finishes)
-Wood: 6-plies of Philippine mahogany in the middle, inner ply falkata

Stage Custom Birch mark I (6000-series)
-2008-2014
-Badge: 4 screws, vertically wide at the center, narrows to the sides, silver bkground, grey center, text “Stage Custom All Birch Shell”
-Made in China
-Tom mounts: YESS (all floor tom brackets are YESS)
-Lugs: split (metal)
-Wood: 7-ply (7mm) birch bass drums, 6-ply (6mm) birch toms and snare

Stage Custom Birch mark II (no series number)
-2014 →
-Badge: 2 screws, vertically wide at the center, narrows to the sides, silver sides, golden center, text “Stage Custom All Birch Shell” and “Handcrafted since 1967”
-Made in China
-Tom mounts: YESS (floor tom brackets are non-YESS)
-Lugs: Absolute (metal)
-Wood: birch, 7-ply (7.7mm) bass drums, 6-ply (6.6mm) toms and snare
-Rounded bearing edges
-Die cast bass drum claws
-10 lugs on snare
-Bass drum hoops laquered only on the outside


Heka Timeline - History

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Piye, formerly called Piankhi, (flourished 8th century bce ), king of Cush (or Kush, in the Sudan) from about 750 to about 719 bce . He invaded Egypt from the south and ended the petty kingdoms of the 23rd dynasty (c. 823–c. 732 bce ) in Lower Egypt. According to Egyptian tradition, his brother Shabaka founded the 25th dynasty, but Piye laid the foundations.

The kingdom of Cush, of which Piye was ruler, emerged out of the Egyptianized population of the Sudan near Mount Barkal, between the third and fourth Nile cataracts. The cult of the Egyptian god Amon Re was strongly entrenched among the Cushites, and a threat by Tefnakhte, a Libyan chieftain of the Nile delta, to Amon’s homeland in Upper Egypt provoked Piye to move northward. Following a ritual visit to Thebes, Piye’s forces met the Libyans’ river fleet and defeated it. They then vanquished a land army near Heracleopolis, in Middle Egypt, and advanced to take Hermopolis, another Middle Egyptian stronghold of the Libyans, and Memphis, Egypt’s ancient capital. Piye received the submission of several delta potentates and, later, of the last representative of the 23rd dynasty. He then invaded the delta, where more local rulers surrendered. Finally, Tefnakhte sent a message of submission, and Piye sent an emissary to obtain his oath of fealty. After some final submissions by holdouts, Piye sailed home to Mount Barkal with the spoils of his venture. He remained in his capital and was buried there the great stela recounting his deeds also was found there and is dated in the 21st year of his reign.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy McKenna, Senior Editor.


Learning Hekau

The six paths of Hekau divide the occult praxes of Isis, Thoth and millennia of sorcerers into distinct magical sciences. A truly puissant magician will eventually gain knowledge of every art, but most of the young Reborn struggle to recapture even a fraction of the glory that built mighty Egypt. Each mummy finds that a certain path comes more naturally to her ancient soul fragment, whether due to old memories or instinctual bent. There are two main kinds of magic within each Path: spells (instant effects) and rituals (prolonged and more lasting and powerful enchantments). A Reborn requires a moderate amount of time to learn a new Path — the philosophical underpinnings and the new and alien means of thinking can be fairly difficult to grasp — but it's a relatively simple matter to advance along a path you already know. Additionally, it's far easier to learn under the tutelage of one who already has the knowledge you seek than it is to puzzle it out for yourself through research and study.

Additionally, a path of Hekau represents the authority that the mummy gains over creation due to the acquisition of mystical knowledge and adherence to the cause of Balance. The Judges of Ma'at punish those who come before them after having strayed from the path of Ma'at. Mummies use Sekhem to fuel their Hekau techniques.


A Timeline and Place

Quentin and Julia play Pictionary, while Margo drinks some weird milk.

Penny 23 and Marina 23 wake up in warded cages in a workshop they were both captured by someone who sold them to Daniel, who is a horomancer, a Magician also known as "Stoppard" specializing in time manipulation, and he doesn't want to hurt them, but their presence in timeline 40, even the subatomic particles in their bodies, are messing up his magic, so he's going to send them home. He has made a cube-shaped widget that allows him to move between timelines. He drops a Dewey into a convenient slot in the widget, twists a control, and zap, the three of them are in the equivalent of Daniel's workshop, but in timeline 23.

Daniel discovers that his magical tools don't work in timeline 23, there's no magic there, which means the magic holding Penny in his cage is gone he Travels out and decks Daniel. He frees Marina, not because he trusts her, but because she says she knows how to work Daniel's timeline widget. She uses it to change timelines, but it goes wrong, instead of timeline 40, they get to another time we'll call timeline 36, where the muggles know about magic, and have outlawed it. They go outside and find the streets well supplied with soldiers enforcing the no-magic laws and arresting suspected magic users. They have the idea of finding the Daniel of this timeline for help with the widget, he's the only horomancer they know.

In the Manhattan apartment, Quentin and Julia aren't sure if they should be helping the Monster with the idea of assembling stone "organs" into a body, but Quentin says if it works, it could get the Monster to leave Eliot and go to the new body, and that's at least some progress. They look at the stone things the Monster has shown them, and they have Egyptian-style hieroglyphs (even though they came from Greek-pantheon gods). The hieroglyphs have a symbol of a certain yellow fruit in common. They do some web research, and find an article on a recently-uncovered Egyptian tomb.

Alice has followed the World Book to a house in Modesto, California, where there's a sign for a room for rent. She greets the owner, Sheila, and rents the room. She asks Sheila what people do in Modesto, to which Sheila says "Nothing."

In Fillory, Tick Pickwick shows Margo and Fen a purple flower he's learned that since magic came back, this species of flower has been blooming all over Fillory, and its pollen stops the talking animals from speaking. There is a remedy, it's the juice from a certain beet grown in Codswall, but Lady Pike, its ruler, is known to be difficult.

In Modesto, Alice goes to a convenience store, in part to pick up all of the local activity brochures there, and notices the store's clerk, Dylan, has hedge witch tattoos on his arm. Trying to stir up some common feeling, she asks how he's getting by with the magic shortage, but he brushes her off.

Alice is searching the web about Modesto, and finds a video from a local pastor hoping for money to provide leukemia treatment for a young girl. She asks Sheila if she knows the pastor, and it turns out he's the pastor of Sheila's church, a good person. Alice is occasionally glaring at her World Book, as if to ask "Why did you send me here?"

It's night, and Alice notices Sheila smoking outside, when Sheila seems to get an idea or a feeling, looks around, then holds up a hand like she was sensing something. She follows her feelings into a wooded area, where she finds a stone, under which is a metal box with money in it. Alice has quietly followed her and sees this. She follows Sheila as she goes to the church and leaves the money box on the front steps.

The next day, Alice shows Sheila the local paper, with a story about the church finding money for the girl's treatment, and confronts Sheila with using magic. Sheila has no idea what Alice is talking about she stands up, accidentally spilling her coffee. Alice does a spell, and the coffee un-spills itself, and Sheila is dumbfounded. Alice says she does magic, and Sheila does too, she just isn't trained. Sheila says it started a few months ago, she can find things by just sensing where they are. Alice knows that discipline, it's called a quaeromancer.

Just then there's a knock on the door, and it's two people who want to talk about an opportunity for Sheila's "new-found talent". They leave her a brochure for the New Modesto Valley College Library. After they leave, Alice explains about the Library, and how Librarians can't be trusted, anything they are offering is a way to keep tabs on her. Sheila feels like she's got a chance to do something worthwhile in her life for once, and magic could be it. Alice is still traumatized by how much bad magic has done, but after a while she's willing to start training Sheila in magic.

In Fillory, Margo invites Lady Pike in for a talk, and it's clear that Margo has no idea where Codswall is or what it does, which bothers Lady Pike enough that she plans to sell all their beets to West Loria. For a while Margo is angry enough to start a war with West Loria, but Josh gets her to try diplomacy, which she is quite unfamiliar with, it requires empathy, which Josh says he has plenty of.

In timeline 36, Penny and Marina get to the apartment of Daniel 36 and are welcomed in by his mother, Sonia, who they notice has hedge witch tattoos. They show Daniel the widget, and he's amazed by it as he examines it, Marina notices a booklet on a shelf and steals it. Suddenly Sonia staggers into the room, saying something is wrong, and Daniel says something is going wrong with her spells. While Daniel helps Sonia, Penny grabs the widget and Travels Marina and himself away.

They go to the Physical Kids Cottage at Brakebills, and like many magical places in timeline 36, it has been destroyed by the muggles. They search for books but find nothing useful. Marina examines the booklet she stole, and says it's Sonia's notes, she was a genius who basically pioneered horomancy, and these are her plans for useful things. One is a device that opens a window in time, though it uses cinnabar, which is both dangerous and banned Marina thinks Sonia has been overdosing on cinnabar for years, which is what's causing her problems, after a long while it gets your brain unstuck in time, and eventually you die. Sonia was wearing some tools to control it, but the presence of Penny 23 and Marina 23 interfered with them. They realize that Daniel 36 will do anything to get rid of them.

They make the window in time device from the notes, and turn it on, to look at Sonia 36 at an earlier year in the timeline. They talk to her, say they're friends of Daniel, and say the cinnabar is causing her trouble she says she knows that, but she has work to do. They turn off the machine.

Penny and Marina argue about going back to timeline 40 if they do so, that will continue to harm Sonia of timeline 40, and Penny doesn't want that. Marina doesn't care about Sonia, but she has a lover in timeline 40 she doesn't want to lose. They race to grab the time widget Penny gets it first, and in a flash he's gone.

Quentin and Julia go to a museum at night, to a room full of Egyptian artifacts, and search for anything interesting. Then they notice the Monster standing there, drinking he says his body loves drinking, and anyway he's bored with their lack of progress. They ask him if he knows anything about the yellow fruit hieroglyphic, and the Monster has no idea, but then suggests they ask someone who was there: he puts his hand on a coffin, and a wrapped mummy climbs out of it.

The Monster is able to get the mummy to start explaining something, we see the mummy writing symbols on a glass wall, but there isn't much real communication going on. Quentin does find a link between some of what the mummy writes and symbols he finds on the web, to perhaps connect the fruit with a god of magic and medicine, and there could be another stone in someone's tomb, which was looted long ago. The Monster tells Quentin and Julia to figure this out.

In Modesto, Sheila and Alice are working together on a simple glass figure, and take a break. They discuss more about how magic can be used for fixing things, but also breaking things. Alice gets some water from the tap, and Sheila tells her not to drink it, the city water has lead in it from their old pipes, so everyone uses bottled water. Alice waves her hand in a spell, and purifies her glass of water. Sheila asks if they could do that, do magic to fix the water system, and Alice says there wouldn't be enough free, ambient magic for something that big. Sheila says she thinks she can feel where there's a magic-carrying pipe nearby, and she says she can feel a leak in it.

Margo invites Lady Pike to dinner, with Josh providing diplomatic advice via magic. He gets her to have enough conversational skill for Lady Pike to be at least willing to talk (for instance, expressing an interest in the alpacas that Codswall gets lots of wool from), but not enough to get her to change her deal with West Loria.

In an aside, Josh tells Margo she's doing great at diplomacy, better than Eliot. Margo says she has a better idea.

Margo goes back to Lady Pike, waves a knife, and threatens to skin and eat all of Codswall's dear alpacas if they don't sell their beets to Fillory. Lady Pike nervously agrees.

Penny 23 finds himself in a white room, in no perceivable timeline or world, nothing there but white chairs and a white table. In walks another Penny, in a Librarian suit, it's Penny 40, more relaxed and confident than we've ever seen him. He says he's dead, technically, but this white room is an in-between space so they can talk. He has a professionally-printed booklet on The Stoppard Cube, which he verifies is the time widget that Penny 23 brought with him, but he gives the cube back to Penny 23. His message is that Penny 23 needs to go back to timeline 40, he's needed there for something crucial Penny 40 won't talk about. There's stuff going on due to Penny 23's presence there, and it matters. But Sonia 40 is going to die anyway, she has a month to live, there's nothing that can save her. Anyway, timeline 40 needs Penny 23, it's not Penny 40's home anymore. Penny 40 sticks a Dewey into the cube and tells Penny 23 to turn a dial 3 clicks to the right.

Marina is still in the Cottage in timeline 36, when Penny 23 appears there. He doesn't know how to explain his experience, but says he knows what they need to do now.

In Modesto, Alice goes with Sheila through the neighborhood as she senses the magic conduit, and points to a place on a wall where it must be, though there's nothing visible. They look through some magic glass and see the pipe and utility box, and can see a crack. Alice does a spell, which broadens the crack into a big break, spraying magic into the air. They both feel more magic around them.

At the convenience store, Dylan also feels the increase in magic, and calls a friend.

Back home, Sheila and Alice do a spell to make a liquid and pour it into the sink, which cleans the city's water and fixes the corrosion in the pipes. They did something worthwhile. Alice looks uneasy, and says it's because she can't remember the last time magic actually fixed something.

Quentin and Julia go back to the apartment, and find the Monster there going through bathroom drawers, and finding a bottle of prescription pills. Quentin sees this and grabs the bottle away, but the Monster gets them again. The Monster is bored, and if alcohol isn't enough maybe pills will be better, and even if the pills kill his body he can just take a new one. Quentin tells him no: if he kills Eliot, Quentin and Julia will stop helping him. When the Monster threatens Quentin some more, he sees Quentin doesn't care if he lives or not, he cares about Eliot. The Monster says fine, he'll take care of Eliot's body, they should get on with things.

In Fillory, Josh complains to Margo about how she threw out their diplomacy plan, and Margo is unusually upset about something. Josh's comment about "out-Elioting Eliot" seems to have struck a nerve, and Margo now doesn't care about him or anything he does, they're no longer a couple. He leaves.

In timeline 40, Daniel walks out of his workshop, and finds Penny 23 there, holding a dandelion. It took Daniel time to get back from timeline 23, the magic there was scarce. Penny explains that there's nothing to be done for Daniel's mother, but there are bigger things going on, so he and Marina are staying. The dandelion is from another timeline, if he just blows it, the seeds will develop everywhere, impossible to eradicate. and it was just a talking piece, Penny 23 had already scattered ten dandelions around before Daniel arrived, so there's no going back. Penny 23 leaves.

As Alice and Sheila walk in the neighborhood, they come to a spraying fire hydrant, and a bunch of kids not playing in it, they know open water is bad for them. Sheila takes a while to convince them it's all right now, it's fixed, so they start playing in the water like kids do. Sheila goes home, but Alice stays to watch.

Dylan is met by his friend, Whitley, and they arrange something for "all of us". Shortly after, outside the Modesto Valley College Library building, we see magic rush towards it, and the building explodes. Dylan and Whitley watch and nod to each other.

Sheila gets home and finds two Librarians, one of them the Traveler Librarian, Gavin, waiting for her. Gavin says she's "been a busy girl."

Alice sits on the park bench, watching the kids play in the water, and, after a little uncertainty, has the best smile she's shown in a long time.


Watch the video: The Iconographic Chronology of Ancient Kemet Greek name, Egypt (July 2022).


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