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Did a Common Childhood Illness Take Down the Neanderthals?

Did a Common Childhood Illness Take Down the Neanderthals?


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A 21st century nuisance for parents may have proved deadly to early man .

It is one of the great unsolved mysteries of anthropology. What killed off the Neanderthals, and why did Homo sapiens thrive even as Neanderthals withered to extinction ?

Was it some sort of plague specific only to Neanderthals? Was there some sort of cataclysmic event in their homelands of Eurasia that lead to their disappearance?

Neanderthals Visited by Head & Neck Anatomists

A new study from a team of physical anthropologists and head and neck anatomists suggests a less dramatic but equally deadly cause. Published online by the journal, The Anatomical Record , the study, Reconstructing the Neanderthal Eustachian Tube: New Insights on Disease Susceptibility, Fitness Cost, and Extinction suggests that the real culprit in the demise of the Neanderthals was not some exotic pathogen.

A team of physical anthropologists and head and neck anatomists studied Neanderthals to learn more about physical reasons for their extinction. (Oaktree b / )

Instead, the authors believe the path to extinction may well have been the most common and innocuous of childhood illnesses -- and the bane of every parent of young children -- chronic ear infections .

Neanderthals Get Their Diagnosis

“It may sound far-fetched, but when we, for the first time, reconstructed the Eustachian tubes of Neanderthals, we discovered that they are remarkably similar to those of human infants,” said co-investigator and Downstate Health Sciences University Associate Professor Samuel Márquez, PhD, “Middle ear infections are nearly ubiquitous among infants because the flat angle of an infant's Eustachian tubes is prone to retain the otitis media bacteria that cause these infections - the same flat angle we found in Neanderthals.”

  • Top Ten Myths about Neanderthals
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Chronic otitis media bacterial infections cause damage to the middle ear – as shown. (Welleschik / CC BY-SA 3.0 )

In this age of antibiotics, these infections are easy to treat and relatively benign for human babies. Additionally, around age 5, the Eustachian tubes in human children lengthen and the angle becomes more acute, allowing the ear to drain, all but eliminating these recurring infections beyond early childhood.

The Neanderthal Physical Problem Identified

But unlike modern humans, the structure of the Eustachian tubes in Neanderthals do not change with age - which means these ear infections and their complications, including respiratory infections, hearing loss, pneumonia, and worse, would not only become chronic, but a lifelong threat to overall health and survival.

External and middle ear. Eustachian tube labeled as auditory tube. (Pngbot / )

“It's not just the threat of dying of an infection,” said Dr. Márquez. "If you are constantly ill, you would not be as fit and effective in competing with your H. sapien cousins for food and other resources. In a world of survival of the fittest, it is no wonder that modern man, not Neanderthal, prevailed.”

“The strength of the study lies in reconstructing the cartilaginous Eustachian tube ,” said Richard Rosenfeld, MD, MPH, MBA, Distinguished Professor and Chairman of Otolaryngology at SUNY Downstate. “This new and previously unknown understanding of middle ear function in Neanderthals is what allows us to make new inferences regarding the impact on their health and fitness.”

“Here is yet another intriguing twist on the ever-evolving Neanderthal story, this time involving a part of the body that researchers had almost entirely neglected,” said Ian Tattersall, Ph.D., paleoanthropologist and Curator Emeritus of the American Museum of National History. “It adds to our gradually emerging picture of the Neanderthals as very close relatives who nonetheless differed in crucial respects from modern man .”


Eustachian Tube in Neanderthal Man (image)

This illustration shows the structure of the Eustachian Tube in Neanderthal Man and it's similarity to the human infant.

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SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University

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Did a common childhood illness take down the Neanderthals?

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Copyright © 2021 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)


First glimpse at what ancient Denisovans may have looked like, using DNA methylation data

But exactly what our Denisovan relatives might have looked like had been anyone’s guess for a simple reason: the entire collection of Denisovan remains includes a pinky bone, three teeth, and a lower jaw. Now, researchers reporting in the journal Cell have produced reconstructions of these long-lost relatives based on patterns of methylation in their ancient DNA.

“We provide the first reconstruction of the skeletal anatomy of Denisovans,” says author Liran Carmel of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. “In many ways, Denisovans resembled Neanderthals, but in some traits, they resembled us, and in others they were unique.”

Overall, the researchers identified 56 anatomical features in which Denisovans differed from modern humans and/or Neanderthals, 34 of them in the skull. For example, the Denisovan’s skull was probably wider than that of modern humans or Neanderthals. They likely also had a longer dental arch.

Carmel, along with study first author David Gokhman and their colleagues, came to this conclusion by using genetic data to predict the anatomical features of the Denisovans. Rather than relying on DNA sequences, they extracted anatomical information from gene activity patterns. Those gene activity patterns were inferred based on genome-wide DNA methylation or epigenetic patterns, chemical modifications that influence gene activity without changing the underlying sequence of As, Gs, Ts, and Cs.

The researchers first compared DNA methylation patterns between the three hominin groups to find regions in the genome that were differentially methylated. Next, they looked for evidence about what those differences might mean for anatomical features based on what’s known about human disorders in which those same genes lose their function.

“By doing so, we can get a prediction as to what skeletal parts are affected by differential regulation of each gene and in what direction that skeletal part would change–for example, a longer or shorter femur,” Gokhman explains.

To test the method, the researchers first applied it to two species whose anatomy is known: the Neanderthal and the chimpanzee. They found that roughly 85% of the trait reconstructions were accurate in predicting which traits diverged and in which direction they diverged. By focusing on consensus predictions and the direction of the change rather than trying to predict precise measurements, they were able to produce the first reconstructed anatomical profile of the little-understood Denisovan.

The evidence suggests that Denisovans likely shared Neanderthal traits such as an elongated face and a wide pelvis. It also highlighted Denisovan-specific differences, such as an increased dental arch and lateral cranial expansion, the researchers report.

Carmel notes that while their paper was in review, another study came out describing the first confirmed Denisovan mandible. And, it turned out that the jaw bone matched their predictions.

The findings show that DNA methylation can be used to reconstruct anatomical features, including some that do not survive in the fossil record. The approach may ultimately have a wide range of potential applications.

“Studying Denisovan anatomy can teach us about human adaptation, evolutionary constraints, development, gene-environment interactions, and disease dynamics,” Carmel says. “At a more general level, this work is a step towards being able to infer an individual’s anatomy based on their DNA.”


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Did a common childhood illness take down the Neanderthals?

Summary: First anatomical reconstruction of the Neanderthal cartilaginous Eustachian tube (CET) indicates the tubal morphology may have predisposed them to high rates of otitis media, a common childhood ear infection. The susceptibility to ear infections may have compromised their fitness and ability to compete within their niche. This may have contributed to their rapid extinction.

Source: Suny Downstate Health Science University

It is one of the great unsolved mysteries of anthropology. What killed off the Neanderthals, and why did Homo sapiens thrive even as Neanderthals withered to extinction? Was it some sort of plague specific only to Neanderthals? Was there some sort of cataclysmic event in their homelands of Eurasia that lead to their disappearance?

A new study from a team of physical anthropologists and head & neck anatomists suggests a less dramatic but equally deadly cause.

Published online by the journal, The Anatomical Record, the study, “Reconstructing the Neanderthal Eustachian Tube: New Insights on Disease Susceptibility, Fitness Cost, and Extinction” suggests that the real culprit in the demise of the Neanderthals was not some exotic pathogen.

Instead, the authors believe the path to extinction may well have been the most common and innocuous of childhood illnesses – and the bane of every parent of young children – chronic ear infections.

“It may sound far-fetched, but when we, for the first time, reconstructed the Eustachian tubes of Neanderthals, we discovered that they are remarkably similar to those of human infants,” said coinvestigator and Downstate Health Sciences University Associate Professor Samuel Márquez, PhD, “Middle ear infections are nearly ubiquitous among infants because the flat angle of an infant’s Eustachian tubes is prone to retain the otitis media bacteria that cause these infections – the same flat angle we found in Neanderthals.”

In this age of antibiotics, these infections are easy to treat and relatively benign for human babies. Additionally, around age 5, the Eustachian tubes in human children lengthen and the angle becomes more acute, allowing the ear to drain, all but eliminating these recurring infections beyond early childhood.

But unlike modern humans, the structure of the Eustachian tubes in Neanderthals do not change with age – which means these ear infections and their complications, including respiratory infections, hearing loss, pneumonia, and worse, would not only become chronic, but a lifelong threat to overall health and survival.

This illustration shows the structure of the Eustachian Tube in Neanderthal Man and it’s similarity to the human infant. The image is credited to SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University.

“It’s not just the threat of dying of an infection,” said Dr. Márquez. “If you are constantly ill, you would not be as fit and effective in competing with your Homo sapien cousins for food and other resources. “In a world of survival of the fittest, it is no wonder that modern man, not Neanderthal, prevailed.”

“The strength of the study lies in reconstructing the cartilaginous Eustachian tube,” said Richard Rosenfeld, MD, MPH, MBA, Distinguished Professor and Chairman of Otolaryngology at SUNY Downstate and a world-renowned authority on children’s health. “This new and previously unknown understanding of middle ear function in Neanderthal is what allows us to make new inferences regarding the impact on their health and fitness.”

“Here is yet another intriguing twist on the ever-evolving Neanderthal story, this time involving a part of the body that researchers had almost entirely neglected,” said Ian Tattersall, Ph.D., paleoanthropologist and Curator Emeritus of the American Museum of National History. “It adds to our gradually emerging picture of the Neanderthals as very close relatives who nonetheless differed in crucial respects from modern man.”

Source:
Suny Downstate Health Science University
Media Contacts:
John Gillespie – Suny Downstate Health Science University
Image Source:
The image is credited to SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University.


About Me

Heidi Lindborg Tucson, AZ, United States I obsess about obsession because it seems like the best use of the pathology.
Not that I really have any choice.

I believe that the majority of mental illness is secondary symptoms of common chronic infections. I was a medical librarian, and now I just pretty much constantly research sleep disorders, depression, mania and dementia. This is where I collect my accumulating hypotheses and try to document the atrocities occurring daily in the Infection Industrial Complex.
My goal is not to convince you that my ideas are right, but to show you there is more than one way to interpret scientific data. View my complete profile


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A couple more

Well, it looks like Porphyromonas gingivalis is also associated with-

Oral Cancer- it promotes the proliferation of immortal epithelial cells.
(which I believe can travel to the lungs and breasts)


Prostate Cancer- yeah, all the old men I know have that.

Ankylosing spondylitis - a rare type of arthritis that affects the spine


here's another plug for Cleure Toothpaste. Everyone I know is getting it for a gift this year.


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Watch the video: ΔΕΣ ΤΟ ΒΙΝΤΕΟ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΞΗΣΕ ΤΙΣ ΠΙΘΑΝΟΤΗΤΕΣ ΕΠΙΒΙΩΣΗΣ! ΟΔΗΓΙΕΣ ΕΠΙΒΙΩΣΗΣ ΓΙΑ ΜΑΧΗΤΕΣ! (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Tar

    What words ... The phenomenal phrase, admirable

  2. Polydorus

    I fully share her point of view. In this nothing there is a good idea. I agree.

  3. Barisar

    Cute phrase

  4. Arar

    I mean, you allow the mistake. Write to me in PM.



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