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Journal of Captain Georg Pausch of the Hanau Artillery.

[October 7, ,1777] At this junction, our left wing retreated in the greatest possible disorder, thereby causing a similar rout among our German command, which was stationed behind the fence in line of battle. They retreated or to speak more plainly—they left their position without informing me, although I was but fifty paces in advance of them. Each man for himself, they made for the bushes. Without knowing it, I kept back the enemy for a while with my unprotected cannon loaded with shells. How long before this the infantry had left its position, I cannot tell, but I saw a great number advance towards our now open left wing within a distance of about 300 pacer,. I looked back towards the position still held, as I supposed, by our German infantry, under whose protection I, too, intended to retreat—but not a man was to be seen. They had all run across the road into the field and thence into the bushes, and had taken refuge behind the trees. Their right wing war, thus in front of the house I have so often mentioned, but all was in disorder, though they still fought the enemy which continued to advance.

In the mean time, on our right wing, there was stubborn fighting on both sides, our rear, meanwhile, being covered by a dense forest, which, just before, had protected our right flank. The road by which we were to retreat lay through the woods and was already in the hands of the enemy, v,~ho accordingly intercepted us. Finding myself, therefore, finally in my first mentioned position—alone, isolated, and almost surrounded by the enemy, and with no way open but the one leading to the house where the two ~ pound cannon stood, dismounted and deserted—I had no alternative but to make my way along it with great difficulty if I did not wish to be stuck in a damned crooked road.

After safely reaching the house under the protection of a musketry fire —which, however, owing to the bushes, was fully as dangerous to me as if the firing came from the enemy—I presently came across a little earth-work, r8 | feet long by 5 feet high. This I at once made use of by posting my two "non, one on the right, and the other on the left, and began a fire alternatelY with balls and with shells, without, however, being able to discriminate in favor of our men who were in the bushes; for the enemy, without troubling them, charged savagely upon my cannon, hoping to dismount and silence them.... I

A brave English Lieutenant of Artillery, by the name of Schmidt, and a f sergeant were the only two who were willing to serve the cannon longer. He came to me and asked me to let him have ten artillery-men and one subaltern from my detachment to serve these cannon. But it was impossible for me ~ to grant his request, no matter how well disposed I might have been towa" it. Two of my men had been shot dead; three or four were wounded. number had straggled off, and all of the infantry detailed for that purpose either gone to the devil or run away. Moreover, all I had left, for the serving | of each cannon, were four or five men and one subaltern. A six-pound can- I non, also, on account of its rapidity in firing, was more effectual than a twelve pounder, with which only one-third the number of shots could he fired; and furthermore, I had no desire to silence my own cannon, which I were still in my possession, and thereby contribute to raise the honor~, of f another corps. Three wagons of ammunition were fired away by my cannon which became so heated that it was impossible for any man to lay his hands on them. In front, and also to the right and left of my guns, I had conquered, for myself and for those who were in the same terrain, a pretty comfortable fort. But this state of things lasted only a short time, the fire behind us coming nearer. Finally, our right wing was repulsed in our rear; its
however, fortunately retreating in better order than our left wing had done. I still could see, as far as the plain and clearing reached, the road, on which I had marched to this second position, open, and a chance, therefore, to retreat. Accordingly, myself, the artillery-man Hausemann and two other artillery-men, hoping to save one of the cannon, dragged it towards this road. The piece of wood on the cannon made the work for us four men very difficult and, in fact, next to impossible. Finally, a subaltern followed with the other cannon and placed it on the carriage. We now brought up the other carriage, on which I quickly placed the remaining gun, and marched briskly along the road, hoping to meet a body of our Infantry and with them make a stand. But this hope proved delusive and was totally dispelled; for some ran in one, and others in another direction; and by the time that I came w ithin gunshot of the woods, I found the road occupied by the enemy. They came towards us on it; the bushes were full of them; they were hidden behind the trees; and bullets in plenty received us.

Seeing that all was irretrievably lost, and that it was impossible to save anything, I called to the few remaining men to save themselves. I myself took refuge through a fence, in a pick of dense underbrush on the right of the road, with the last ammunition wagon, which, with the help of a gunner, I saved with the horses. Here I met all the different nationalities of our division running pell mell—among them Capt. Schoel, with whom there was not a single man left of the Hanau Regiment. In this confused retreat all made for our camp and our lines. The entrenchment of Breymann was furiously assailed; the camp in it set on fire and burned, and all the baggage horses and baggage captured by the enemy. The three 6-pound cannon of mv brigade of artillery were also taken, the artillery men, Wacher and Fintzell, killed, and artillery-man Wall (under whose command were the cannon) severely, and others slightly, wounded. The enemy occupied this entrenchment and remained in it during the night. The approaching darkness put an end to further operations on the part of the Americans.


Discover Saratoga National Historical Park

Saratoga National Historical Park in Stillwater, NY features a number of attractions and fun activities for visitors to do throughout the year. Explore the site of the historic Battle of Saratoga, take a tour of the Schuyler House, check out the Saratoga Monument, and walk through Victory Woods.

Photo Credit: SaratogaPhotographer.com


The British Army

“I myself felt more humiliation until I considered that those advantages [obtained by the Americans at Saratoga] proceeded from the nature of the country, and not from the want of zeal or bravery in the British troops.”


The British Army at Saratoga


The British Army was a force serving two kingdoms—Great Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) and Ireland. As such, the British military recruited heavily from among the populations of both kingdoms, not only Britain.

In 1777, British soldiers were volunteers no one was drafted into the service. Because a soldier was supposed to receive regular pay, clothing, shelter, medical coverage, and, often, a pension upon retirement, the army was an attractive employer for many poor people. Because joining the British Army was a lifelong commitment—changing careers in one’s life was uncommon in the 18 th century—many soldiers brought their wives and children with them. The highest rank soldiers could ever hope to achieve was that of Serjeant-Major very few were promoted into the officer corps, but it was not unheard of, particularly in wartime.

Officers usually came from Britain’s and Ireland’s wealthier, connected families. While it is true that most infantry officers purchased their commissions (their ranks), artillery and engineer officers were promoted for free based upon seniority. Infantry officers received on-the-job training, while most artillery and engineer officers were military academy graduates.

After the American War for Independence began in 1775, it became increasingly difficult to find army recruits in Britain and, particularly, Ireland—a lot of people didn’t want to fight against their American cousins. One solution the government came up with was to recruit 2,000 Germans for the redcoat ranks. These Germans were separate from the German “Hessians” hired as auxiliary troops during the war. If it sounds odd to have foreign (German) speakers, few of whom knew any English, added to the redcoat ranks, it certainly was!

General Burgoyne’s British infantry “Redcoats” and Royal Artillery “Blue Boys” (so named for the blue uniforms they wore) were professional soldiers, and most were well trained to fight against the “rebel” Americans, even in the woods. However, most of them—including the officers—were inexperienced in warfare and had never been in combat before 1777!


Battle of Saratoga

Place of the Battle of Saratoga: Saratoga on the Hudson River in New York State.

Combatants at the Battle of Saratoga: British and German troops against the Americans.

Major-General John Burgoyne: Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War: picture by Joshua Reynolds

Generals at the Battle of Saratoga: Major General John Burgoyne commanded the British and German force. Major General Horatio Gates and Brigadier Benedict Arnold commanded the American army.

Size of the armies at the Battle of Saratoga: The British force comprised some 5,000 British, Brunswickers, Canadians and Indians. By the time of the surrender the American force was around 12,000 to 14,000 militia and troops.

Uniforms, arms and equipment at the Battle of Saratoga: The British wore red coats, with bearskin caps for the grenadiers, tricorne hats for the battalion companies and caps for the light infantry.

The German infantry wore blue coats and retained the Prussian style grenadier mitre cap with brass front plate.

The Americans dressed as best they could. Increasingly as the war progressed regular infantry regiments of the Continental Army wore blue or brown uniform coats, but the militia continued in rough clothing.

Major-General Benedict Arnold: Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

The British and German troops were armed with muskets and bayonets. The Americans carried muskets, largely without bayonets. Virginia and Pennsylvania regiments, particularly Morgan’s men and other men of the woods carried long, small calibre, rifled weapons. cannons, mostly of small calibre.

Winner of the Battle of Saratoga: The Americans forced the surrender of Burgoyne’s force.

British Regiments at the Battle of Saratoga:
The senior officers were Major General William Phillips, Baron Riedesel, Brigadier Simon Fraser and Brigadier Hamilton.

Major Lord Balcarres commanded the light companies of the regiments of foot.

Major Acland commanded the grenadier companies of the same regiments.
The battalion companies of the 9 th , 20 th , 21 st , 24 th , 29 th , 31 st , 47 th , 53 rd and 62 nd Foot.
Breyman’s Jägers, Riedesel’s Regiment, Specht’s Regiment, Rhetz’s Regiment and Captain Pausch’s Hesse Hanau Company of artillery
Indians and Canadians.

Major-General Horatio Gates: Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

The American Army at the Battle of Saratoga:
Right Wing:
Under the personal command of General Horatio Gates:
Brigadier Glover’s Continental Brigade, Colonel Nixon’s Continental Regiment and Brigadier Paterson’s Continental Brigade

Centre:
Brigadier Learned’s Continental Brigade, Bailey’s Massachusetts Regiment, Jackson’s Massachusetts Regiment, Wesson’s Massachusetts Regiment and Livingston’s New York Regiment

Left Wing:
Commanded by Major General Benedict Arnold
Brigadier Poor’s Brigade, Cilley’s 1st New Hampshire Regiment, Hale’s 2nd New Hampshire Regiment, Scammell’s 3rd New Hampshire Regiment, Van Cortlandt’s New York Regiment, Livingston’s New York Regiment, Connecticut Militia, Morgan’s Riflemen and Dearborn’s Light Infantry

Background to the Battle of Saratoga: Over the winter of 1776/7, the British Government in London devised a plan to send a strong army down the Lake Champlain route from Canada into the heart of the rebellious American Colonies, isolating New England.

Colonel John St Leger: Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War: picture by Joshua Reynolds

The British Governor of Canada, Sir Guy Carleton, with his experience of campaigning in North America, would have been a sound appointment for this command, particularly after his determined and resourceful defence of Canada in 1775 and 1776. Instead, Lord Germaine, the minister in London with direct control of the British war policy, persuaded King George III to appoint Major-General John Burgoyne, Carleton’s subordinate during 1776, as commander-in-chief of the expedition from Canada. Burgoyne took the precaution of returning to London during the winter to lobby for the command.

Strong reinforcements of British and Brunswick regiments of foot and artillery were sent to Canada. Germaine’s instructions to Burgoyne were to take the best of these regiments down Lake Champlain, capture Fort Ticonderoga, advance to the Hudson River and progress south.

Lord Germaine’s and Burgoyne’s expectations were that a second British force under Major General Clinton would move north, up the Hudson River from New York, and meet Burgoyne, but no proper orders were sent to General Howe, commanding the British forces in New York, to ensure that he complied with this expectation. General Howe, the British commander-in-chief in the central colonies had his own plans to invade Pennsylvania and take Philadelphia.

Burgoyne’s army set off from the St Lawrence River down Lake Champlain at the end of June 1777, reaching Fort Ticonderoga on 1 st July 1777. The American commander abandoned the fort (see the Battle of Ticonderoga 1777) as the British and Brunswickers arrived.

The British Colonel St Leger advanced down the Mohawk River from Lake Erie with a British force in a diversionary raid.

Movement by river: Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

On 10 th July 1777, Burgoyne’s force reached Skenesboro, at the southern end of Lake Champlain, where it concentrated on clearing the road to the North for supplies and to the South for the advance. The forested country, crossed by primitive tracks rather than roads, was difficult for an army having to move quantities of supplies and artillery.

General Schuyler, the American commander, withdrew to Stillwater, thirty miles north of Albany, Burgoyne’s primary target. The American authorities made determined efforts to raise the New England militia and to implement a scorched earth policy in the path of the British advance.

To obtain additional supplies and horses for his Brunswick dragoon regiment, Burgoyne sent the German, Colonel Baum, with 500 men on a raid to Bennington, New Hampshire. Simultaneously Burgoyne moved his army down the Hudson River to Saratoga, where he built a substantial fortified camp.

British lines at Saratoga seen from across the Hudson River: Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

Baum’s force was attacked by American militia and overwhelmed. A relieving force commanded by Colonel Breymann was repelled with some loss (see the Battle of Bennington).

St Leger found that difficulties with his Indian allies and the vigorous resistance of Brigadier Benedict Arnold forced him to abandon his advance down the Mohawk River.

Burgoyne was in a perilous position. The presence of his army was arousing the local militia in substantial numbers. He was short of food. Germaine’s imperative orders to march south restrained Burgoyne from remaining where he was, from retreating northwards or from diverting to the East.

Brigadier Simon Fraser of Balnairn: Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

It took Burgoyne until 13 th September 1777 to assemble sufficient supplies, dragged through the forests down rudimentary roads, to enable his army to continue the advance south.

On 19 th September 1777, Burgoyne’s army approached the fortified American camp on the west bank of the Hudson River at Bemis Heights.

The British force advanced on the American army, now commanded by the ex-British officer, Major-General Horatio Gates, in three columns, one by the river under the German officer, Colonel Riedesel, the main force in the centre commanded by Burgoyne himself, and the third, commanded by Brigadier Simon Fraser, making a wide outflanking detour to the American left. The aim of the British was to take the unfortified hill to the West of the American positions on Bemis Heights.

Arnold pressed Gates to leave his entrenchments and attack the British but he was reluctant to take what he saw as the risk of moving out of his fortified camp.

Map of the American attack on 7th October 1777 at the Battle of Saratoga in the American Revolutionary War: map by John Fawkes

Burgoyne deployed his battalions for the attack the 9th, 21st, 62nd and 20th Foot. Fraser came up on the right, with the Grenadiers, Light Companies and the 24th Foot, towards the heights on the American left, and Riedesel began his approach along the riverbank. This phase of the battle was known as the Battle of Freeman’s Farm and was hard fought, leaving the British in occupation of the ground at nightfall.

Account of the Battle of Saratoga: The next day, 20 th September 1777, several of Burgoyne’s senior offices urged him to renew the attack on the American positions. It is suggested that if he had done so he would have taken advantage of the disarray into which the previous day’s hard fighting had thrown Gates’s army. Although initially tempted by the proposal, Burgoyne finally rejected it and remained in his camp by the Hudson River.

Benedict Arnold leading the American attack at the Battle of Saratoga on 7th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

On the same day, Burgoyne received word that the Americans had captured one of his supply flotillas on Lake George. He was tempted to abandon the whole enterprise and withdraw to Fort Ticonderoga, but information that Major-General Clinton was advancing to meet him, up the Hudson River from New York, caused Burgoyne to remain in his camp.

By 7 th October 1777, despite considerable success in the southern reaches, Clinton had not made any real progress up the Hudson River. Burgoyne determined to launch the delayed attack on the American positions on Bemis Heights. By this time, Gates had been considerably reinforced and his army comprised some 12,000 men against around 4,000 British and Germans.

Burgoyne described the operation as a reconnaissance in strength, designed to see if he could occupy the hill to the West of the American fortifications on Bemis Heights.

General Benedict Arnold wounded at the Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

The American piquets sent word that the British had advanced and were forming up in a wheat field near the old Freeman’s Farm battlefield. Morgan’s riflemen were committed to the attack, quickly supported by the other regiments of Arnold’s division. The Americans far outnumbered the British “reconnaissance” party and the British Grenadiers and Light Companies were pressed back.

Mortal wounding of Brigadier Simon Fraser of Balnairn at the Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

At a critical moment in the fighting, Brigadier Simon Fraser was mortally wounded by one of Morgan’s riflemen. Arnold spurred the Americans to continue the attack and was himself severely wounded. The British and Hessian troops began to give way and, after the redoubt held by Colonel Breyman and his regiment was taken, Burgoyne withdrew the force to his fortified camp above the Hudson River.

Surrender of General Burgoyne and the British Army to General Gates at the Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

The next day, 8 th October 1777, Burgoyne withdrew his army up the river to the camp they had built at Saratoga. The American army followed and enveloped the British positions. Burgoyne let the last opportunities to retreat north to Ticonderoga go by, hoping that Clinton’s army would come up the Hudson River from the South to his relief. A major difficulty in the campaign was communication between the two British forces. Almost all the messengers attempting the journey between Burgoyne and Clinton were caught and hanged by the Americans.

Map of the the Battle of Saratoga in the American Revolutionary War on 17th October 1777 at the time of Burgoyne’s surrender: map by John Fawkes

Burgoyne awaited news of Clinton’s advance until 17th October 1777, when he was forced to sign the convention by which his troops surrendered to Gates, who had by then between 18,000 and 20,000 men.

Casualties at the Battle of Saratoga: Of the 7,000 British and Germans who marched from Canada only 3,500 were fit for duty at the surrender.

Burial of Brigadier Simon Fraser at the Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War: picture by John Graham

Follow-up to the Battle of Saratoga: The consequences of Burgoyne’s surrender were catastrophic for Britain. France entered the war on the side of the American colonists in 1778, followed by Spain in 1779, and the American effort in the war was galvanized.

Anecdotes and Traditions from the Battle of Saratoga:

    It is said that Benedict Arnold pointed out Brigadier Simon Fraser as a prominent mounted British officer to Daniel Morgan and ordered him to have one of his riflemen shoot him. Morgan reluctantly ordered Timothy Murphy to shoot Fraser which he did.

Major Lord Balcarres commander of the British Light Infantry at the Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

Capitulation of the British at the Battle of Saratoga on 17th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War: picture by John Trumbull

References for the Battle of Saratoga:

History of the British Army by Sir John Fortescue

The War of the Revolution by Christopher Ward

The American Revolution by Brendan Morrissey

Saratoga by Richard Ketchum

The previous battle of the American Revolutionary War is the Battle of Germantown

The next battle of the American Revolutionary War is the Battle of Monmouth

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The Battle of Saratoga: The Battles of Freeman’s Farm and Bemis Heights

Known as the turning point of the Revolutionary War, the Battle of Saratoga was fought on September 19th and October 7th in 1777. Its two battles are also known as the Battle of Freeman’s Farm and the Battle of Bemis Heights, from where they took place, in upstate New York near Saratoga.

Benedict Arnold, America’s first traitor, as some call him, made his greatest stand in this fight.

The Battle of Saratoga as a Turning Point

In September of 1777, the British were in control of New York, Rhode Island, and Canada. Native Americans and Germans had decided to side with the British. General Howe was about to take Philadelphia, the self-proclaimed capital of the new United States of America.

The march of British General John Burgoyne down the Hudson River and General Henry Clinton up the Hudson River seemed to spell the end of the American resistance.

This seemed all the more certain when General Burgoyne began his march by easily capturing Fort Ticonderoga.

The British Plan

General John Burgoyne’s plan was to march from Canada, down the Hudson river, and to capture Albany. With the British already in control of New York, Burgoyne figured it would be child’s play to take the Hudson river valley between the two cities once Albany was secured.

The March Down the Hudson River

He and his forces capture Ft. Ticonderoga without a problem, but the journey through the Hudson river valley proved more difficult than expected.

The slow going was not the only problem. Gen. Burgoyne sent troops to Vermont to procure supplies and cattle, but they were attacked and defeated, costing Burgoyne a thousand men. A contingent of Native Americans decided to return home, lessening his numbers even more. And on top of all that, General Lincoln, a Virginian patriot, had gathered a group of men ranging to 750 people went to fight the British from the back. By picking off the British ranks from behind trees, they weakened Burgoyne’s army considerably.

The problems gave the American army time to set up defenses on the river at Bemis Heights, south of Saratoga.

The First Battle of Saratoga at Freeman’s Farm

The British were dependent on the river to transport supplies, but with Lincoln behind and patriot fortifications and cannons ahead, Burgoyne tried to slip a detachment of soldiers inland. There, at the farm of one John Freeman (a Loyalist, supporting the British), they ran into American troops under the control of General Horatio Gates.

Officially, the Battle at Freeman’s farm—the first battle of Saratoga—was a victory for the British. Despite being held to a standstill and being picked off by American sharpshooters, they eventually drove the Americans from the battlefield with the help of German reinforcements that arrived during cthe day.

However, during the battle on Freeman’s Farm, Burgoyne lost two men to each rebel.

Still hoping for reinforcements from General Howe in New York, Burgoyne decided to set up camp and hold what he had gained. The patriots, driven from the battlefield once already, let him do so.

But the British would not get their reinforcements.

British Reinforcements Do Not Arrive

In New York City, British General Howe had left New York to take Philadelphia. He left a contingent of British regulars there under the command of General Henry Clinton to defend the city.

General Clinton sent a letter to Burgoyne that was received just after the battle of Freeman’s farm. It promised that he was coming up the Hudson with reinforcements from New York. Unfortunately, the furthest north Clinton would reach was Clermont, nearly 50 miles from Albany and 70 from Bemis Heights.

The Second Battle of Saratoga at Bemis Heights

By October 3, General Burgoyne realized that General Clinton would never arrive in time. He was already forced to put his men on limited rations, and he did not want to surrender to the Americans, whom he considered almost conquered.

He decided on a rush on the patriots’ left flank, which he performed on October 7.

It was hopeless. While Burgoyne was losing men to American sharpshooters, the Americans had been joined by General Lincoln’s forces plus a steady stream of militia men. They easily withheld the British attack, and they almost killed General Burgoyne, shooting his horse, his hat, and his waistcoat.

Driven back, the British trooped gathered behind a couple redoubts (temporary fortifications), which were held nobly until an unexpected participant roared into the midst of the battle.

General Benedict Arnold at the Battles of Saratoga

Before Benedict Arnold was a traitor, he was a loyal American, and nowhere was he more effective than at the Battle of Saratoga.

General Arnold led much of the first battle at Freeman’s farm, but bickering with General Gates led to his being relieved of command between battles.

Once the battle was engaged, however, Arnold could not restrain himself, despite the fact that Gates had confined him to his tent. Riding wildly into the battle—to this day it is rumored that he was drinking—he led the attack on the British redoubts, broke the line of Canadian forces between them, and opened an attack on the rear of the redoubts by American troops.

As the redoubt was taken, Arnold was shot, breaking his leg. He was finally retrieved by the officer Gates had sent after him and returned to camp on a stretcher.

Darkness fell, and General Burgoyne led his beleauguered troops in flight back to Saratoga.

Outcome of the Battle of Saratoga

Reinforced and rejuvenated American troops set siege to Saratoga, and Burgoyne, realizing the hopelessness of the situation, surrendered on October 17, 1777.

The Americans accomplished far more, however, than saving the Hudson River valley and getting General Burgoyne to surrender …

As a result of the American victory, the French gained enough confidence to begin to support the Americans militarily. They had already provided supplies, but now they would supply soldiers and join the patriot army in resisting the English.

Spain, too, decided to assist the war on the American side.

Clearly, the newly-established Republic turned the tide of the Revolutionary War when General Burgoyne surrendered his British troops to the Americans at the Battle of Saratoga. Confidence and hope were given to French and Americans alike, and Benedict Arnold, whose name is synonymous with treason, must also be credited with a major role in the American War for Independence.


American fortifications at Bemis Heights

On September 9, 1777 the American Northern Army reached the town of Stillwater New York. Schuyler had started to fortify a position near there on August 8, but retreated toward Albany after detaching Arnold to save Fort Stanwix instead. Having restored the army's morale in advancing to confront the enemy, Gates was planning to put his superior numbers in a good defensive position so that Burgoyne would be forced to attack him. Although Gates thought at first of making a stand at Stillwater, his engineering officer Tadeusz Kosciuszko advised against it. Instead, at Bemis Heights, a better position offered itself. The river road was pinned against the Hudson by a long series of Bluffs. Only a narrow strip of land bordered the Hudson river, which could be controlled by placing artillery on these bluffs overlooking the road. This effectively stopped any movement along the river or road. To the west of the bluffs were thick woods that would make any movement of an army with artillery and baggage very difficult (16). Burgoyne would have to muscle his way through the Americans here, or fall back toward Canada.

Time was on the side of the Americans. Reinforcements would continue to come into their camp, which already outnumbered the invader's forces. While the British under Burgoyne were cut off from their from his supply line to Canada, Gates was near his supply base at Albany. Gates could afford to wait out the British who would soon have to retire to Canada or else be stranded in the American wilderness with winter coming on. Gates' entrenchments provided excellent cover for his militia, while his light troops would prevent the British from surprising him. Although not a dashing battlefield commander, Gates' plan took advantage of his superiorities while down playing those of Burgoyne's.

Within the fortified lines along Bemis Heights, Arnold commanded a division that protected the American left flank. The division consisted of General Poor's (1st, 2nd & 3rd New Hampshire and 2nd & 4th New York regiments and two militia regiments) and General Learned's (2nd, 8th, 9th Massachusetts and 1st Canadian regiments) brigades. Colonel Morgan's Light Corp (made up of his Rifle regiment and a Light Infantry battalion commanded by Major Dearborn) guarded the exposed ground west of the American lines outside the encampment. Although not included in Arnold's command in any official document, by posting the Light Corp on the left everyone in the army assumed they would be commanded by Arnold (17).


Journal of British Studies

The official publication of the North American Conference on British Studies (NACBS), the Journal of British Studies, has positioned itself as the critical resource for scholars of British culture from the Middle Ages through the present. Drawing on both established and emerging approaches, JBS presents scholarly articles and books reviews from renowned international authors who share their ideas on British society, politics, law, economics, and the arts. In 2005 (Vol. 44), the journal merged with the NACBS publication Albion, creating one journal for NACBS membership.

The NACBS also sponsors an annual conference, as well as several academic prizes, graduate fellowships, and undergraduate essay contests. While the largest single group of its members teaches British history in colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, the NACBS has significant representation among specialists in literature, art history, politics, law, sociology, and economics. Its membership also includes many teachers at universities in countries outside North America, secondary school teachers, and independent scholars.

The "moving wall" represents the time period between the last issue available in JSTOR and the most recently published issue of a journal. Moving walls are generally represented in years. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication.
Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted.
For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available.

Terms Related to the Moving Wall Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive. Absorbed: Journals that are combined with another title. Complete: Journals that are no longer published or that have been combined with another title.


Saratogo- British Journal - History

Members of Campbell's light infantry company at Ticonderoga, July 2018

"Towards noon the 62nd Regiment arrived here from Isle aux Noix, and took up its quarters with us at Trois Rivières for the night. This is one of the finest English regiments in our army, and is commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Anstruther, who is a patriot, a good soldier and an amiable man."

—Journal of the Braunschweig Troops in North America under the Command of Major General Riedesel, 5 November 1776

His Majesty's 62nd Regiment of Foot is dedicated to the study and interpretation of the regiment's service during the American War for Independence. We are committed to portraying soldiers and followers at living history events and reenactments using high-quality material culture, foodway, and interpretive standards. We actively engage in ongoing historical research in order to better represent those of the past who we strive to honor through our portrayals. We are proud members of the British Brigade.

62nd Regiment of Foot battalion company other ranks cap badge, 1777
Saratoga National Historical Park, New York

That Corps suffer'd very much, by Keith Rocco, 2016 (National Park Service)

The 62d Regiment of Foot and Royal Regiment of Artillery battle continental and militia troops in the 19 September 1777 Battle of Freeman's Farm
(First Battle of Saratoga). Although the British were victorious over the rebel Americans that day, the 62d Regiment in particular suffered heavy casualties.


Why Was the Battle of Saratoga Important?

The Battle of Saratoga was important because it was a crucial turning point in the American Revolutionary War. America finally started to receive international recognition, which led to aid in the war against the British government.

The Battle of Saratoga was actually two battles. The first battle occurred on September 19, 1777, and lasted from 12:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. The second battle occurred on October 7, 1777, and lasted a couple of hours. When both battles were over, the death toll for the Americans was 800, and the British had lost 1,500. As a result of the battlefield win, the French entered the war on America's side. By the end of the battle, 86 percent of the British troops who lived were captured. The win at Saratoga came on the heels of a major loss in the Battle of the Brandywine.

One instrumental figure during the Battle of Saratoga was Benedict Arnold. Arnold helped to stop the British army from advancing. His work also led to the surrender of the British general leading their charge. Arnold was hurt during the battle when his leg became pinned under his horse. His leg was saved, and there is a monument to it at the Saratoga National Historic Park.


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