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300 Santee Sioux sentenced to hang in Minnesota

300 Santee Sioux sentenced to hang in Minnesota


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In Minnesota, more than 300 Santee Sioux are found guilty of raping and murdering Anglo settlers and are sentenced to hang. A month later, President Abraham Lincoln commuted all but 39 of the death sentences. One of the Native Americans was granted a last-minute reprieve, but the other 38 were hanged simultaneously on December 26 in a bizarre mass execution witnessed by a large crowd of Minnesotans.

The Santee Sioux were found guilty of joining in the so-called “Minnesota Uprising,” which was actually part of the wider Indian wars that occurred throughout the West during the second half of the nineteenth century. For nearly half a century, Anglo settlers invaded the Santee Sioux territory in the Minnesota Valley, and government pressure gradually forced the Native peoples to relocate to smaller reservations along the Minnesota River.

At the reservations, the Santee were badly mistreated by corrupt federal Indian agents and contractors; during July 1862, the agents pushed the Native Americans to the brink of starvation by refusing to distribute stores of food because they had not yet received their customary kickback payments. The contractors callously ignored the Santee’s pleas for help.

Outraged and at the limits of their endurance, the Santee struck back, killing Anglo settlers and taking women as hostages. The initial efforts of the U.S. Army to stop the Santee warriors failed, and in a battle at Birch Coulee, Santee Sioux killed 13 American soldiers and wounded another 47 soldiers. However, on September 23, a force under the leadership of General Henry H. Sibley finally defeated the main body of Santee warriors at Wood Lake, recovering many of the hostages and forcing most of the Native Americans to surrender.

The subsequent trials of the prisoners gave little attention to the injustices the Native Americans had suffered on the reservations and largely catered to the popular desire for revenge. However, President Lincoln’s commutation of the majority of the death sentences clearly reflected his understanding that the Minnesota Uprising had been rooted in a long history of Anglo abuse of the Santee Sioux.


V tento deň je v Minnesote viac ako 300 Santee Sioux odsúdených za znásilnenie a zavraždenie osadníkov Anglo a sú odsúdení za tresty. O mesiac neskôr zmizol prezident Abrahám Lincoln, až na 39 rozsudkov smrti. Jeden z Indov dostal odplatu na poslednú chvíľu, ale ďalších 38 bolo obesených súčasne 26. decembra v bizarnej masovej poprave, ktorej svedkom bolo veľké množstvo ľudí, ktorí schvaľovali Minnesotanov.

Santee Sioux bol uznaný vinným z účasti v takzvanom „povstaní v Minnesote“, ktoré bolo v skutočnosti súčasťou širších indických vojen, ktoré trápili Západ v druhej polovici 19. storočia. Takmer pol storočia angolskí osadníci napadli územie Santee Sioux v krásnom údolí Minnesota a vládny tlak postupne donútil Indov presťahovať sa do menších rezervácií pozdĺž rieky Minnesota.

Pri výhradách boli Santee zle postihnutí skorumpovanými federálnymi indickými agentmi a dodávateľmi počas júla 1862 agenti tlačili Indov na pokraj vyhladovania tým, že odmietli distribuovať zásoby potravín, pretože ešte nedostali svoje obvyklé platby za spätný výplat. Dodávatelia bezcitne ignorovali Santeeho prosby o pomoc.

Po pobúrení a na hranici svojej vytrvalosti Santee konečne ustúpila, zabila osadníkov Anglo a prijala ženy ako rukojemníkov. Počiatočné úsilie americkej armády o zastavenie bojovníkov Santee zlyhalo av bitke pri Birch Coulee Santee Sioux zabil 13 amerických vojakov a zranil ďalších 47 vojakov. 23. septembra však sila pod vedením generála Henryho H. Sibleyho nakoniec porazila hlavnú skupinu bojovníkov Santee v Wood Lake, čím obnovila mnoho rukojemníkov a prinútila väčšinu Indov, aby sa vzdali. Nasledujúce súdne konania s väzňami venovali malú pozornosť nespravodlivosti, ktorú Indiáni utrpeli pri výhradách, a do veľkej miery uspokojili ľudovú túžbu po pomste. Zmiernenie väčšiny rozsudkov smrti prezidenta Lincolna však jasne odrážalo jeho pochopenie, že povstanie v Minnesote bolo zakorenené v dlhej histórii angloanského zneužívania Santee Sioux.


300 Santee Sioux sentenced to hang in Minnesota - HISTORY

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"Largest mass hanging in United States history"
38 Santee "Sioux" Indian men
Mankato, Minnesota, Dec. 16, 1862
303 Indian males were set to be hanged

What brought about the hanging of 38 Sioux Indians in Minnesota December 26, 1862 was the failure "again" of the U.S. Government to honor it's treaties with Indian Nations. Indians were not given the money or food set forth to them for signing a treaty to turn over more than a million acres of their land and be forced to live on a reservation.

Indian agents keep the treaty money and food that was to go to the Indians, the food was sold to White settlers, food that was given to the Indians was spoiled and not fit for a dog to eat. Indian hunting parties went off the reservation land looking for food to feed their families, one hunting group took eggs from a White settlers land and the rest is history.

Information below tells how President Lincoln and Minnesota Governor Alexander Ramsey set out to exterminate Indians from their home land.

Authorities in Minnesota asked President Lincoln to order the immediate execution of all 303 Indian males found guilty. Lincoln was concerned with how this would play with the Europeans, whom he was afraid were about to enter the war on the side of the South. He offered the following compromise to the politicians of Minnesota: They would pare the list of those to be hung down to 39. In return, Lincoln promised to kill or remove every Indian from the state and provide Minnesota with 2 million dollars in federal funds. Remember, he only owed the Sioux 1.4 million for the land.

So, on December 26, 1862, the Great Emancipator ordered the largest mass execution in American History, where the guilt of those to be executed was entirely in doubt. Regardless of how Lincoln defenders seek to play this, it was nothing more than murder to obtain the land of the Santee Sioux and to appease his political cronies in Minnesota.

Scott Barta
[email protected] 712-277-2235 Sioux City, Iowa

It is expected that Lincoln be removed from his position as “hero” and relegated to a more appropriate position, to somewhere near the status of “Columbus” and “Hitler.”
We demand that Abe Lincoln's dishonest and shameful face be removed from the "occupied" and desecrated area called “Mount Rushmore” immediately.
Abe Lincoln “honest” and “hero” No more
see online petition at

http://www.petitiononline.com/badabe/petition.html


Text of Order to General Sibley, St. Paul Minnesota:

"Ordered that of the Indians and Half-breeds sentenced to be hanged by the military commission, composed of Colonel Crooks, Lt. Colonel Marshall, Captain Grant, Captain Bailey, and Lieutenant Olin, and lately sitting in Minnesota, you cause to be executed on Friday the nineteenth day of December, instant, the following names, to wit [39 names listed by case number of record: cases 2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 19, 22, 24, 35, 67, 68, 69, 70, 96, 115, 121, 138, 155, 170, 175, 178, 210, 225, 254, 264, 279, 318, 327, 333, 342, 359, 373, 377, 382, 383].

The other condemned prisoners you will hold subject to further orders, taking care that they neither escape, nor are subjected to any unlawful violence.

Abraham Lincoln,
President of the United States"


"On December 6 (1862) President Lincoln notified Sibley that he should "cause to be executed" thirty-nine of the 303 convicted Santees, Execution date was the 26th of December. At the last minute, one Indian was given a reprieve. About ten o'clock the thirty-eight condemned men were marched from the prison to the scaffold. They sang the Sioux death song until soldiers pulled white caps over their heads and placed nooses around their necks. At a signal from an army officer, the control rope was cut and thirty-eight Santee Sioux dangled lifeless in the air.

A spectator boasted that this was
"America's greatest
" public execution."

Dec 27 1862 (Saturday)

SAINT PAUL, December 27, 1862. The PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: I have the honor to inform you that the thirty-eight Indians and half-breeds ordered by you for execution were hung yesterday at Mankato at 10 a.m. Everything went off quietly and the other prisoners are well secured. Respectfully, H. H. SIBLEY, Brigadier-General.

"The Sioux Indians of Minnesota must be exterminated or driven forever beyond the borders of the state."
Minnesota
Governor Alexander Ramsey

bounties were placed on the scalps of Dakota people
which eventually reached $200

Governor Alexander Ramsey had declared on September 9, 1862 that "The Sioux Indians of Minnesota must be exterminated or driven forever beyond the borders of the state." The treatment of Dakota people, including the hanging in Mankato and the forced removal of Dakota people from Minnesota, were the first phases of Ramsey's plan.

His plan was further implemented when bounties were placed on the scalps of Dakota people which eventually reached $200. Punitive expeditions were then sent out over the next few years to hunt down those Dakota who had not surrendered and to ensure they would not return. After 38 of the condemned men were hanged the day after Christmas in 1862 in what remains the largest mass hanging in United States history, the other prisoners continued to suffer in the concentration camps through the winter of 1862-63.

In late April of 1863 the remaining condemned men, along with the survivors of the Fort Snelling concentration camp, were forcibly removed from their beloved homeland in May of 1863. They were placed on boats which transported the men from Mankato to Davenport, Iowa where they were imprisoned for an additional three years. Those from Fort Snelling were shipped down the Mississippi River to St. Louis and then up the Missouri River to the Crow Creek Reservation in South Dakota.


The youngest person hanged in America was Hannah Ocuish who was 12 years and nine months old and was described as a half breed Indian girl. She was executed on December 20th 1786 for the murder of a 6 year old girl whom she had beaten to death after an earlier argument.

A memorial to the memory of the dead now stands in downtown Mankato in Reconciliation Park.

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Thanks to UNA member Scott for pictures of the memorial.


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Šajā dienā Minesotā vairāk nekā 300 Santee Sioux tiek atzīti par vainīgiem anglo kolonistu izvarošanā un slepkavībā un tiek notiesāti. Mēnesi vēlāk prezidents Abrahams Linkolns pielika visus nāvessodus, izņemot 39. Vienam no indiešiem tika dota pēdējā brīža atruna, bet pārējie 38 vienlaicīgi tika pakārti 26. decembrī savādajā masveida nāvessoda izpildījumā, par kuru liecināja liels minesotiešu apstiprināšanas pūlis.

Santee Sioux tika atzīts par vainīgu iestāšanā tā dēvētajā “Minesotas sacelšanās”, kas faktiski bija daļa no plašākiem Indijas kariem, kas deviņpadsmitā gadsimta otrajā pusē plosīja Rietumus. Gandrīz pusgadsimta laikā anglo kolonisti iebruka Santee Sioux teritorijā skaistajā Minesotas ielejā, un valdības spiediens pamazām piespieda indiāņus pārcelties uz mazākām rezervācijām pa Minesotas upi.

Atrunājot Santee, slikti izturējās pret korumpētajiem Indijas federālajiem aģentiem un darbuzņēmējiem 1862. gada jūlijā aģenti izstūma indiešus uz bada robežas, atsakoties izplatīt pārtikas veikalus, jo viņi vēl nebija saņēmuši savus parastos atsitiena maksājumus. Līgumslēdzēji apzināti ignorēja Santee lūgumus pēc palīdzības.

Sašutuši un izturības robežās, Santeija beidzot atsitās pretī, nogalinot anglo kolonistus un pieņemot sievietes par ķīlniekiem. Sākotnējie ASV armijas centieni apturēt Santee karotājus cieta neveiksmi, un kaujās pie Bērzu Kule Santejs Sjūss nogalināja 13 amerikāņu karavīrus un ievainoja vēl 47 karavīrus. Tomēr 23. septembrī spēks ģenerāļa Henrija H. Sibleja vadībā beidzot pieveica Santee karotāju galveno korpusu pie Vuda ezera, atgūstot daudzus ķīlniekus un piespiežot lielāko daļu indiāņu padoties. Turpmākajos ieslodzīto tiesas procesos maz uzmanības tika veltīts netaisnībām, kuras indiāņi bija cietuši saistībā ar atrunām, un lielā mērā rūpējās par tautas vēlmi atriebties. Tomēr prezidenta Linkolna komutācija lielākajā daļā nāves sodu skaidri atspoguļoja viņa izpratni, ka Minesotas sacelšanās sakņojas ilgā vēsturē, kad angļi ļaunprātīgi izmanto Santee Sioux.


300 Santee Sioux sentenced to hang in Minnesota - Nov 05, 1862 - HISTORY.com

TSgt Joe C.

On this day in Minnesota, more than 300 Santee Sioux are found guilty of raping and murdering Anglo settlers and are sentenced to hang. A month later, President Abraham Lincoln commuted all but 39 of the death sentences. One of the Indians was granted a last-minute reprieve, but the other 38 were hanged simultaneously on December 26 in a bizarre mass execution witnessed by a large crowd of approving Minnesotans.

The Santee Sioux were found guilty of joining in the so-called “Minnesota Uprising,” which was actually part of the wider Indian wars that plagued the West during the second half of the nineteenth century. For nearly half a century, Anglo settlers invaded the Santee Sioux territory in the beautiful Minnesota Valley, and government pressure gradually forced the Indians to relocate to smaller reservations along the Minnesota River.

At the reservations, the Santee were badly mistreated by corrupt federal Indian agents and contractors during July 1862, the agents pushed the Indians to the brink of starvation by refusing to distribute stores of food because they had not yet received their customary kickback payments. The contractors callously ignored the Santee’s pleas for help.


På denne dag i Minnesota er mere end 300 Santee Sioux fundet skyldige i at voldtage og myrde Anglo-bosættere og dømmes til at hænge sammen. En måned senere pendlede præsident Abraham Lincoln alle undtagen 39 dødsdomme. En af indianerne blev tildelt en udsættelse i sidste øjeblik, men de andre 38 blev hængt samtidigt den 26. december i en bisarr masseudførelse, der blev vidne til en stor skare af godkendte Minnesotans.

Santee Sioux blev fundet skyldig i at deltage i den såkaldte "Minnesota Uprising", som faktisk var en del af de bredere indiske krige, der plagede Vesten i anden halvdel af det nittende århundrede. I næsten et halvt århundrede invaderede anglo-nybyggere Santee Sioux-territoriet i den smukke Minnesota Valley, og regeringspres pressede gradvist indianerne til at flytte til mindre reservationer langs Minnesota-floden.

Ved forbeholdene blev santee dårligt behandlet af korrupte føderale indiske agenter og entreprenører i juli 1862 skubbede agenterne indianerne på randen af ​​sult ved at nægte at distribuere fødevarebutikker, fordi de endnu ikke havde modtaget deres sædvanlige kickback-betalinger. Entreprenørerne ignorerede kløgtigt santes begær om hjælp.

Forargede og ved grænserne for deres udholdenhed slo Santee til sidst tilbage, dræbte Anglo-bosættere og tog kvinder som gidsler. Den amerikanske hærs oprindelige bestræbelser på at stoppe Santee-krigere mislykkedes, og i en kamp ved Birch Coulee dræbte Santee Sioux 13 amerikanske soldater og sårede yderligere 47 soldater. Den 23. september besejrede endelig en styrke under ledelse af general Henry H. Sibley endelig hovedlegemet af santee-krigere ved Wood Lake, og gendannede mange af gidslerne og tvang de fleste af indianerne til at overgive sig. De efterfølgende retssager om fanger gav ikke meget opmærksomhed på de uretfærdigheder, som indianerne havde lidt under forbeholdene, og overvejede stort set det populære ønske om hævn. Præsident Lincolns pendling af flertallet af dødsdomme afspejlede imidlertid klart hans forståelse af, at Minnesota-opstanden var forankret i en lang historie med anglo-misbrug af Santee Sioux.


Contents

Previous treaties Edit

The United States government and Dakota leaders negotiated the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux [10] : 1–4 on July 23, 1851, and Treaty of Mendota on August 5, 1851, by which the Dakota ceded large tracts of land in Minnesota Territory to the U.S. in exchange for promises of money and supplies.

From that time on, the Dakota were to live on a 20-mile (32 km) wide Indian reservation centered on a 150 mile (240 km) stretch of the upper Minnesota River. But, the U.S. Senate removed Article 3 of each treaty, which set out reservations, during the ratification process. In addition, much of the promised compensation went to traders for debts allegedly incurred by the Dakota, at a time when unscrupulous traders made enormous profits on their trade. Supporters of the original bill said these debts had been exaggerated. [11]

Encroachments on Dakota funds Edit

When Minnesota became a state in 1858, representatives of several Dakota bands led by Little Crow traveled to Washington to negotiate about enforcing existing treaties. But instead, they lost the northern half of the reservation along the Minnesota River, as well as rights to the quarry at Pipestone, Minnesota. This was a major blow to the standing of Little Crow in the Dakota community.

The land was divided into townships and plots for settlement. Logging and agriculture on these plots eliminated surrounding forests and prairies, which interrupted the Dakota's annual cycle of farming, hunting, fishing and gathering wild rice. Hunting by settlers dramatically reduced the wild game available, such as bison, elk, deer and bear. Not only did this decrease the meat available for survival of the Dakota in southern and western Minnesota, but it directly reduced their ability to sell furs to traders for additional supplies.

Although payments were guaranteed, the U.S. government was two months behind on both money and food when the war started because of men stealing food. [12] [13] The Federal government was preoccupied by waging the Civil War. [14] Most land in the river valley was not arable, and hunting could no longer support the Dakota community. The Dakota became increasingly discontented over their losses: land, non-payment of annuities, past broken treaties, plus food shortages and famine following crop failure. Tensions increased through the summer of 1862.

On 1 January 1862 George E. H. Day (Special Commissioner on Dakota Affairs) wrote a letter to President Lincoln. Day was an attorney from Saint Anthony who had been commissioned to look into the complaints of the Sioux. He wrote:

I have discovered numerous violations of law & many frauds committed by past Agents & a superintendent. I think I can establish frauds to the amount from 20 to 100 thousand dollars & satisfy any reasonable intelligent man that the indians whom I have visited in this state & Wisconsin have been defrauded of more than 100 thousand dollars in or during the four years past. The Superintendent Major Cullen, alone, has saved, as all his friends say, more than 100 thousand in four years out of a salary of 2 thousand a year and all the Agents whose salaries are 15 hundred a year have become rich." [12] Day also accuses Clark Wallace Thompson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Northern Superintendency, of fraud. [15]

Negotiations Edit

On August 4, 1862, representatives of the northern Sisseton and Wahpeton Dakota bands met at the Upper Sioux Agency in the northwestern part of the reservation and successfully negotiated to obtain food. When two other bands of the Dakota, the southern Mdewakanton and the Wahpekute, turned to the Lower Sioux Agency for supplies on August 15, 1862, they were rejected. Indian Agent (and Minnesota State Senator) Thomas Galbraith managed the area and would not distribute food to these bands without payment.

At a meeting of the Dakota, the U.S. government and local traders, the Dakota representatives asked the representative of the government traders, Andrew Jackson Myrick, to sell them food on credit. His response was said to be, "So far as I am concerned, if they are hungry let them eat grass or their own dung." [16] But the context of Myrick's comment at the time, early August 1862, is historically unclear. [17] Another version is that Myrick was referring to the Dakota women, who were already combing the floor of the fort's stables for any unprocessed oats to feed to their starving children, along with a little grass. [18]

The effect of Myrick's statement on Little Crow and his band was clear, however. In a letter to General Sibley, Little Crow said it was a major reason for commencing war:

"Dear Sir – For what reason we have commenced this war I will tell you. it is on account of Maj. Galbrait [sic] we made a treaty with the Government a big for what little we do get and then cant get it till our children was dying with hunger – it is with the traders that commence Mr A[ndrew] J Myrick told the Indians that they would eat grass or their own dung." [19]

Early fighting Edit

On August 16, 1862, the treaty payments to the Dakota arrived in St. Paul, Minnesota, and were brought to Fort Ridgely the next day. They arrived too late to prevent violence. On August 17, 1862, four young Dakota men were on a hunting trip in Acton Township, Minnesota, during which one stole eggs and killed five white settlers after a confrontation and insult. [20] [21] Soon after, a Dakota war council was convened. Their leader, Little Crow, agreed to continue attacks on the American settlements to try to drive out the whites.

Many of the Dakota people, in particular Sisseton and Wahpeton tribes, wanted no part in the attacks. Little Crow had initially been against an uprising and agreed to lead it only after an angry young brave called him a coward. [22] [23] : 305 [24]

According to historian Gary Clayton Anderson, during the war, Dakota warriors captured young American women, hoping to take them as wives. Because American traders took Dakota wives and senior Dakota men had more than one wife, the demographics had gotten skewed: more young Dakota men wanted wives than there were available young Dakota women to marry. [25] : 194 He concludes the warfare in 1862 attracted young braves for various reasons: "revenge for some, plunder for others, the chance to gain honors in warfare. For many Dakota young men, it offered the chance to obtain a wife." [25] : 210

Because the majority of the 4,000 members of the Northern tribes were opposed to the war, their bands played no role in the early killings. [26] Historian Mary Wingerd has stated that it is "a complete myth that all the Dakota people went to war against the United States" and that it was rather "a faction that went on the offensive". [24]

On August 18, 1862, Little Crow led a group that attacked the Lower Sioux (or Redwood) Agency. Trader Andrew Myrick was among the first who were killed. [23] : 305 He was discovered trying to escape through a second-floor window of a building at the agency. Myrick's body later was found with grass stuffed into his mouth - what he had reportedly offered the Sioux. The warriors burned the buildings at the Lower Sioux Agency, which gave area settlers time to escape across the river at Redwood Ferry.

Minnesota militia forces and B Company of the 5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment, sent to quell the uprising, were defeated at the Battle of Redwood Ferry. Twenty-four soldiers, including the party's commander (Captain John Marsh), were killed in the battle. [27] Throughout the day, Dakota war parties swept the Minnesota River Valley and near vicinity, killing many settlers. Numerous settlements including the townships of Milford, Leavenworth and Sacred Heart, were surrounded and burned and their populations nearly exterminated.

Early Dakota offensives Edit

Confident with their initial success, the Dakota continued their offensive and attacked the settlement of New Ulm, Minnesota, on August 19, 1862, and again on August 23, 1862. Dakota warriors had initially decided not to attack the strongly defended Fort Ridgely along the river, and turned toward the town, killing settlers along the way. By the time New Ulm was attacked, residents had organized defenses in the town center and were able to keep the Dakota at bay during the brief siege. Dakota warriors penetrated parts of the defenses and burned much of the town. [28] By that evening, a thunderstorm dampened the warfare, preventing further Dakota attacks.

Regular soldiers and militia from nearby towns (including two companies of the 5th Minnesota Infantry Regiment, then stationed at Fort Ridgely) reinforced New Ulm. Residents continued to build barricades around the town.

The Dakota attacked Fort Ridgely on August 20 and 22, 1862. [29] [30] Although the Dakota were not able to take the fort, they ambushed a relief party from the fort to New Ulm on August 21. The defense at the Battle of Fort Ridgely further limited the ability of the American forces to aid outlying settlements. The Dakota raided farms and small settlements throughout south central Minnesota and what was then eastern Dakota Territory.

State military response Edit

On August 19, 1862, Minnesota Governor Alexander Ramsey asked his long-time friend and political rival, former Governor Henry Hastings Sibley, to lead an expedition up the Minnesota River for the relief of Fort Ridgely, and gave him an officer's commission as Colonel of Volunteers. [31] : 31 Sibley had no previous military experience, but was familiar with the Dakota and the leaders of the Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Sisseton and Wahpeton bands, having traded among them since arriving in the Minnesota River Valley 28 years prior as a representative of the American Fur Company. [32] [31]

End of siege at Fort Ridgely Edit

After receiving a message written by Lieutenant Timothy J. Sheehan about the seriousness of the attacks on Fort Ridgely, Colonel Sibley decided to wait for reinforcements, arms, ammunition and provisions before leaving St. Peter. On August 26, Sibley marched toward Fort Ridgely with 1400 men, including six companies of the 6th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment and 300 "very irregular cavalry." [33] [31] : 31 On August 27, a vanguard of mounted men under Colonel Samuel McPhail arrived at Fort Ridgely and lifted the siege the rest of Sibley's force arrived the next day and established a camp outside the fort. Many of the 250 refugees, some of whom had been confined within Fort Ridgely for eleven days, were transported to St. Paul on August 29. [33] [34]

Among the citizen soldier units in Sibley's command during his expedition to Fort Ridgely: [35] : 772, 781, 783, 784, 785, 790

  • Captain William J. Cullen's mounted St. Paul Cullen Guards
  • Captain Joseph F. Bean's company "The Eureka Squad"
  • Captain David D. Lloyd's company organized in Rice County
  • Captain Calvin Potter's company of mounted men
  • Captain Mark Hendrick's battery of light artillery
  • Captain J.R. Sterrett's company of mounted men raised at Lake City
  • 1st Lieutenant Christopher Hansen's company "Cedar Valley Rangers" of the 5th Iowa State Militia, Mitchell County, Iowa [citation needed]
  • Other elements of the 5th and 6th Iowa State Militia [citation needed]

Defense along southern and southwestern "frontier" Edit

On August 28, Governor Ramsey sent Judge Charles Eugene Flandrau to the Blue Earth country to secure the state's southern and southwestern "frontier," extending from New Ulm to the northern border of Iowa. [32] : 169 On September 3, Flandrau received his officer's commission as a colonel in Minnesota's volunteer militia. He set up his headquarters at South Bend, four miles southwest of Mankato, where he maintained a guard of 80 men. [36] Flandrau organized a line of forts, garrisoned by soldiers under his command, at New Ulm, Garden City, Winnebago, Blue Earth, Martin Lake, Madelia and Marysburg. [31] : 49 Flandrau and his companies were relieved on October 5, 1862, by the 25th Wisconsin Infantry Regiment. [32] : 170

Iowa Northern Border Brigade Edit

In Iowa, alarm over the Dakota attacks led to the construction of a line of forts from Sioux City to Iowa Lake. The region had already been militarized because of the Spirit Lake Massacre in 1857. After the 1862 conflict began, the Iowa Legislature authorized "not less than 500 mounted men from the frontier counties at the earliest possible moment, and to be stationed where most needed," though this number was soon reduced. Although no fighting took place in Iowa, the Dakota uprising led to the rapid expulsion of the few remaining unassimilated Dakota. [37] [38]

Encounters in early September Edit

Battle of Birch Coulee Edit

On August 31, while Sibley trained new soldiers and waited for additional troops, guns, ammunition and food, he sent a group of 153 men on a burial expedition to find and bury dead settlers and soldiers, and ascertain what had happened to Captain John S. Marsh and his men during the attack at Redwood Ferry. [39] : 305 The company included members of the 6th Minnesota Infantry Regiment and mounted men of the Cullen Frontier Guards, [40] as well as teams and teamsters sent to bury the dead, accompanied by approximately 20 civilians who had asked to join the burial party. In the early morning hours of September 2, 1862, a group of 200 Dakota warriors surrounded and ambushed their campsite, kicking off a 31-hour siege known as the Battle of Birch Coulee, which continued until Colonel Henry Hastings Sibley finally arrived with more troops and artillery on September 3. The state military suffered its worst casualties during the war, with 13 soldiers dead on the ground, nearly 50 wounded, and more than 80 horses killed, [25] : 170 while only 2 Dakota soldiers were confirmed dead. [41]

Attacks in northern Minnesota Edit

Farther north, the Dakota attacked several unfortified stagecoach stops and river crossings along the Red River Trails, a settled trade route between Fort Garry (now Winnipeg, Manitoba) and Saint Paul, Minnesota, in the Red River Valley in northwestern Minnesota and eastern Dakota Territory. Many settlers and employees of the Hudson's Bay Company and other local enterprises in this sparsely populated country took refuge in Fort Abercrombie, located in a bend of the Red River of the North about 25 miles (40 km) south of present-day Fargo, North Dakota. Between late August and late September, the Dakota launched several attacks on Fort Abercrombie all were repelled by its defenders, including Company D of the 5th Minnesota Infantry Regiment, which was garrisoned there, with assistance from other infantry units, citizen soldiers and "The Northern Rangers." [10] : 53–58

In the meantime, steamboat and flatboat traffic on the Red River came to a halt. Mail carriers, stage drivers and military couriers were killed while attempting to reach settlements such as Pembina, North Dakota, Fort Garry, St. Cloud, Minnesota, and Fort Snelling. Eventually, the garrison at Fort Abercrombie was relieved by a Minnesota Volunteer Infantry from Fort Snelling, and the civilian refugees were removed to St. Cloud.

Army reinforcements Edit

Due to the demands of the American Civil War, Adjutant General Oscar Malmros and Governor Alexander Ramsey of Minnesota had to repeatedly appeal for assistance from the governors of other northern states, the United States Department of War, and President Abraham Lincoln. [31] : 87 Finally, Secretary of War Edwin Stanton formed the Department of the Northwest on September 6, 1862 and appointed General John Pope, who had been defeated in the Second Battle of Bull Run, to command it, with orders to quell the violence "using whatever force may be necessary." [25] : 179–180 Pope reached Minnesota on September 16. Recognizing the severity of the crisis, Pope instructed Colonel Henry Hastings Sibley to move decisively, but struggled to secure additional Federal troops in time for the war effort. [42]

Recruitment for the Minnesota infantry had restarted in earnest in July 1862, following President Lincoln's call for 600,000 volunteers to fight with the Union Army in the Civil War. [39] : 301–2 With the outbreak of war in Minnesota in August, the state adjutant general's headquarters ordered the 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiments, which were still being constituted, to dispatch troops under Sibley's command as soon as companies were formed. [43] [44] : 301,349,386,416,455 Many enlisted soldiers who had been furloughed until after harvest were quickly recalled, and new recruits were urged to enlist, furnishing their own arms and horses if possible. [39] : 302

Concerned that his troops lacked experience, Sibley urged Ramsey to hasten the return of the 3rd Minnesota Infantry Regiment to Minnesota, following their humiliating surrender to the Confederates in the First Battle of Murfreesboro. [25] : 156 The enlisted men of the 3rd Minnesota were formally exchanged as paroled prisoners on August 28. Placed under the command of Major Abraham E. Welch, who had served as a lieutenant in the 1st Minnesota Infantry Regiment, they joined Sibley's forces at Fort Ridgely on September 13. [45] : 158

Battle of Wood Lake Edit

The final decisive battle of the war took place at the Battle of Wood Lake on September 23, 1862, and was a victory for the U.S. forces led by Colonel Henry Hastings Sibley. Following the arrival of more troops, guns, ammunition and provisions, Sibley's entire command had departed Fort Ridgely on September 19. According to one estimate, he had 1,619 men in his army, including the 270 men of the 3rd Minnesota, nine companies of the 6th Minnesota, five companies of the 7th Minnesota, one company of the 9th, 38 Renville Rangers, 28 mounted citizen guards, and 16 citizen-artillerists. [46] Sibley planned to meet Little Crow's warriors on the open plains above the Yellow Medicine River, where he believed his better organized, better equipped forces with their rifled muskets and artillery with exploding shells would have an advantage against the Dakota with their double-barreled shotguns. [47]

Meanwhile, Dakota runners were reporting Sibley's movements every few hours. [48] Chief Little Crow and his soldiers' lodge received word that Sibley's troops had reached the Lower Sioux Agency and would arrive at the area below the Yellow Medicine River around September 21. On the morning of September 22, Little Crow's soldiers' lodge ordered all able-bodied men to march south to the Yellow Medicine River. [49] While hundreds of soldiers marched willingly, others went because they had been threatened by the soldiers' lodge headed by Cut Nose (Marpiya Okinajin) they were also joined by a contingent from the "friendly" Dakota camp who sought to prevent a surprise attack on Sibley's army. [48] [50] : 159 A total of 738 men were counted when they reached a point a few miles from Lone Tree Lake, where they had learned that Sibley had set up camp. [49] A council was called, and Little Crow proposed attacking and capturing the camp that night. However, Gabriel Renville (Tiwakan) and Solomon Two Stars argued vehemently against his plan, saying that Little Crow had underestimated the size and strength of Sibley's command, that attacking at night was "cowardly," and that his plan would fail because they and others would not help them. [51] [52]

Upon learning that the army had thrown up breastworks to fortify the campsite, Rattling Runner (Rdainyanka) and the leaders of the "hostile" Dakota soldiers' lodge finally agreed that it would be unsafe to attack that night, and planned to attack Sibley's troops when they were marching on the road to the Upper Sioux Agency early in the morning. [41] [52] On the night of September 22, Little Crow, Chief Big Eagle and others carefully moved their warriors into position under cover of darkness, often with a clear view of Sibley's troops, who were unaware of their presence. [41] Dakota fighters lay in the tall grass along the side of the road with tufts of grass woven into their headdresses for disguise, waiting patiently for daybreak when they expected the troops to march. [31] [25] : 184

Much to the surprise of the Dakota, at about 7 am on September 23, a group of soldiers from the 3rd Minnesota Infantry Regiment left camp in four or five wagons, on an unauthorized trip to forage for potatoes at the Upper Sioux Agency. [45] About half a mile from camp, after crossing the bridge over the creek to the other side of the ravine and ascending 100 yards into the high prairie, the lead wagon belonging to Company G was attacked by a squad of 25 to 30 Dakota warriors who sprang up and began shooting. [53] [54] [25] One soldier jumped out of the wagon and returned fire the soldiers in the rear wagons started shooting and the Battle of Wood Lake had begun. [53] Not waiting for orders or permission, Major Abraham E. Welch led 200 men from the 3rd Minnesota with a line of skirmishers to the left and the right following in reserve. They advanced to a point 300 yards beyond the stream, when an officer rode up to Major Welch with instructions from Colonel Sibley to fall back to camp. Welch obeyed reluctantly and the men of the 3rd Minnesota retreated down the slope toward the stream where they would sustain most of their casualties. [54]

Once the 3rd Minnesota had retreated across the creek, they were joined by the Renville Rangers, a unit of "nearly all mixed-bloods" under Lieutenant James Gorman, sent by Sibley to reinforce them. [25] : 185 The Dakota forces formed a fan-shaped line, threatening their flank. [47] Seeing that the Dakota were now passing down the ravine to try to outflank their men on the right, Sibley ordered Lieutenant Colonel William Rainey Marshall, with five companies of the 7th Minnesota Infantry Regiment and a six-pounder artillery piece under Captain Mark Hendricks, to advance to the north side of the camp he also ordered two companies from the 6th Minnesota Infantry Regiment to reinforce them. [39] Marshall deployed his men equally in dugouts and in a skirmish line which fired as they gradually crawled forward and finally charged, successfully driving the Dakota back from the ravine. [55] On the extreme left, Major Robert N. McLaren led a company from the 6th Regiment around the south side of the lake to defend a ridge overlooking a ravine, and defeated a Dakota flanking attack on the other side. [39]

The Battle of Wood Lake ended after about two hours, as Little Crow and the Dakota warriors retreated in disorder. [47] Chief Mankato was killed in the battle by a cannonball. [31] : 62 Big Eagle later explained that hundreds of Dakota fighters were unable to get involved or fire a shot in the battle, because they had been positioned too far out. [41] Sibley decided not to pursue the retreating Dakota, mainly because he lacked the cavalry to do so. [31] : 64 On his orders, Sibley's men recovered and buried 14 fallen Dakota. [55] [31] : 63 The exact Dakota losses are unknown but the fight effectively ended the war. Sibley lost seven men and another 34 were seriously wounded. [47]

"Surrender" at Camp Release Edit

At Camp Release on September 26, 1862, the Dakota Peace Party handed over 269 former prisoners to the troops commanded by Colonel Sibley. [56] The captives included 162 "mixed-bloods" (mixed-race) and 107 whites, mostly women and children, who had been held hostage by the "hostile" Dakota camp, which broke up as Little Crow and some of his followers fled to the northern plains. In the nights that followed, a growing number of Mdewakanton warriors who had participated in battles quietly joined the "friendly" Dakota at Camp Release many did not want to spend winter on the plains and were persuaded by Sibley's earlier promise to punish only those who had killed settlers. [25] : 187

The surrendered Dakota warriors and their families were held while military trials took place from September to November 1862. Of the 498 trials, 300 men were convicted and sentenced to death. President Lincoln commuted the sentences of all but 38. [57] A few weeks prior to the execution, the convicted men were sent to Mankato, while 1600 Indians and "mixed bloods", including their families and the "friendly" Dakota, were sent to a compound south of Fort Snelling.

Little Crow had fled northward on September 24, the morning after the Battle of Wood Lake, vowing never to return to the Minnesota River valley again. He and the Mdewakanton who followed him hoped to ally with the plains Sioux – including the Yankton, Yanktonais and Teton – and also hoped to gain support from the British in Canada, but received a mixed response. Rebuffed by leaders of other sub-tribes and accompanied by a dwindling number of his own followers, Little Crow eventually returned to Minnesota in late June 1863. [50] He was killed on July 3, 1863, near Hutchinson, Minnesota, while gathering raspberries with his teenage son, Wowinape. The pair had wandered onto the land of white settler Nathan Lamson, who shot at them to collect bounties.

Once it was discovered that the body was that of Little Crow, his skull and scalp were put on display in St. Paul, Minnesota. The city held the trophies until 1971, when it returned the remains to Little Crow's grandson. For killing Little Crow, the state granted Lamson an additional $500 bounty. For his part in the warfare, Little Crow's son was sentenced to death by a military tribunal, a sentence commuted to a prison term.

Chief Standing Buffalo led his band to the northern plains and Canada, where they wandered for nine years. After his death in an encounter with Gros Ventre in Montana, his son took the band into Saskatchewan. There they were ultimately given a reserve, where these northern Sisseton have stayed.

Trials Edit

The trials of the Dakota prisoners were deficient in many ways, even by military standards and the officers who oversaw them did not conduct them according to military law. The trials were not held by the regular U.S. Army, but by Minnesota Volunteer Infantry sworn into Federal service for the Civil War. All federal troops had been transferred out of Minnesota to battle the Confederacy. The 400-odd of trials commenced on 28 September 1862 and were completed on 3 November some lasted less than 5 minutes. No one explained the proceedings to the defendants, nor were the Sioux represented by defense attorneys.

"The Dakota were tried, not in a state or federal criminal court, but before a military commission comprised completely of Minnesota settlers. They were convicted, not for the crime of murder, but for killings committed in warfare. The official review was conducted, not by an appellate court, but by the President of the United States. Many wars took place between Americans and members of the Indian nations, but in no others did the United States apply criminal sanctions to punish those defeated in war." [58] The trials were also conducted in an atmosphere of extreme racist hostility towards the defendants expressed by the citizenry, the elected officials of the state of Minnesota and by the men conducting the trials themselves. "By November 3, the last day of the trials, the Commission had tried 392 Dakota, with as many as 42 tried in a single day."[ibid.] Not surprisingly, given the socially explosive conditions under which the trials took place, by November 10 the verdicts were in. The military commission announced that 303 Sioux prisoners had been convicted of murder and rape and were sentenced to death.

President Lincoln was informed by Maj. Gen. John Pope of the sentences on 10 November 1862 in a telegraphic dispatch from Minnesota. His response to Pope was: "Please forward, as soon as possible, the full and complete record of these convictions. And if the record does not indicate the more guilty and influential, of the culprits, please have a careful statement made on these points and forwarded to me. Please send all by mail." [59]

When the death sentences were made public, Henry Whipple, the Episcopal bishop of Minnesota and a reformer of U.S. Indian policy, responded by publishing an open letter. He also went to Washington DC in the fall of 1862 to urge Lincoln to proceed with leniency. [60] On the other hand, General Pope and Minnesota Senator Morton S. Wilkinson warned Lincoln that the white population opposed leniency. Governor Ramsey warned Lincoln that, unless all 303 Sioux were executed, "[P]rivate revenge would on all this border take the place of official judgment on these Indians." [61]

Lincoln – despite his many other pressing responsibilities in running the country and conducting the War – completed his review of the transcripts of the 303 trials in under a month. On 11 December 1862, he addressed the Senate regarding his final decision (as he had been requested to do by a resolution passed by that body on 5 December 1862):

Anxious to not act with so much clemency as to encourage another outbreak on the one hand, nor with so much severity as to be real cruelty on the other, I caused a careful examination of the records of trials to be made, in view of first ordering the execution of such as had been proved guilty of violating females. Contrary to my expectations, only two of this class were found. I then directed a further examination, and a classification of all who were proven to have participated in massacres, as distinguished from participation in battles. This class numbered forty, and included the two convicted of female violation. One of the number is strongly recommended by the commission which tried them for commutation to ten years' imprisonment. I have ordered the other thirty-nine to be executed on Friday, the 19th instant." [62]

In the end, Lincoln commuted the death sentences of 264 prisoners, but he allowed the execution of 39 men. However, "[on] December 23, [Lincoln] suspended the execution of one of the condemned men [. ] after [General] Sibley telegraphed that new information led him to doubt the prisoner's guilt." [58] Thus, the number of condemned men was reduced to the final 38.

Even partial clemency resulted in protests from Minnesota, which persisted until the Secretary of the Interior offered white Minnesotans "reasonable compensation for the depredations committed." Republicans did not fare as well in Minnesota in the 1864 election as they had before. Ramsey (by then a senator) informed Lincoln that more hangings would have resulted in a larger electoral majority. The President reportedly replied, "I could not afford to hang men for votes." [63]

Execution Edit

Companies D, E, and H of the 9th Minnesota, Companies A, B, F, G, H, and K 10th Minnesota and the 1st Minnesota Cavalry were part of the 2,000 man military guard [64] for the 38 prisoners hanged December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minnesota. [65] [66] It remains the largest single-day mass execution in American history. The size of the guard force was dictated by the numbers of angry Minnesotans encamped at Mankato and the concern of what they wanted to do to the prisoners not being hanged. [64]


American Abomination: Three Hundred Santee Sioux Sentenced to Hang in Largest U.S. Mass Execution

In the aftermath of the Great Sioux Uprising, more accurately referred to as the U.S. — Dakota War of 1862, 300 Sioux men were sentenced to death by hanging after a trial that can only be described as farcical at best. Out of the 392 prisoners put on trial, 303 were given death sentences, and 16 were sent to prison.

The conflict in question was the result o f half a century of ill-treatment from the American settlers towards the Santee Sioux, who had been living in the Minnesota valley for countless generations. The government continued to force the Native peoples on to smaller reservations with promises of compensation for their lands — compensation that never materialized.

The Sioux just didn’t get the whole we-take-what-we-want “Manifest Destiny” deal. Resentment and anger began to build.

Thanks to federal contractors and agents pocketing money and food earmarked by treaty for the Sioux, going into the winter of 1862 they were facing starvation.

The agents knew this, but blithely ignored their cries for help. The local traders wouldn’t extend them any more credit, and one dismissively stated Marie Antoinette-style that if the Sioux got too hungry, they could eat grass.

Angry and desperate, the Sioux struck back by killing Anglo settlers and kidnapping the women. The U.S. Army stepped in (those that weren’t busy fighting in the Civil War), but the Sioux warriors killed 13 American soldiers and wounded another 47. Then on September 23, 1862, the Sioux were defeated by American troops under the leadership of General Henry H. Sibley.

On September 28, 1862, the trials began. The tribunal was beyond biased, the defendants were hampered by a language barrier, and the outcome could hardly have been a surprise to anyone.

The trial transcripts of all the condemned men were sent to Washington so President Lincoln and other high-ranking government lawyers could take a look at them. Lincoln felt he had a responsibility to find some middle ground. He told the Senate he was:

“Anxious to not act with so much clemency as to encourage another outbreak on one hand, nor with so much severity as to be real cruelty on the other, I ordered a careful examination of the records of the trials to be made, in view of first ordering the execution of such as had been proved guilty of violating females.”

However, when just two of the men on trial were found guilty of rape, Lincoln altered his death sentence criteria to include those who took part in civilian “massacres” as opposed to mere “battles.” (Perhaps he was afraid that only two executions would not satisfy the settlers’ demand for justice?) The president chose 39 Sante Sioux destined to die and sent word to Silbey, proving for all time that heroes under some circumstances are often scumbags in others.

On December 26, 1862, 4,000 spectators gathered in Mankato to watch the 38 prisoners (one got a last minute reprieve) die on the scaffold. The men sang a Dakota song as they took their assigned places and white hoods were placed over their heads. The Sioux then clasped hands as a drum beat signaled the cut of a rope that ended their lives.

This massacre is a national tragedy, a badge of shame, and just one example of how poorly and unjustly we have always treated the indigenous people of this land. From Mankato to Standing Rock and beyond, Native Americans have paid in blood for the greed of White America for centuries.

The 38 people who died that day are honored and remembered in two pow-wows held in Minnesota each year. A pow-wow is held in Mankato annually to commemorate those 38 lost lives, but also to promote reconciliation between the Native American and white communities. One is also held in Birch Coulee in memory of those of who died in the largest mass execution in United States history.


Ezen a napon, Minnesotában több mint 300 Santee Sioux-t bűnösnek találtak anglo telepesek megerőszakolásában és meggyilkolásában, és büntetésre ítélik. Egy hónappal később Abraham Lincoln elnök a halálos ítéletek mindegyikét kivitte. Az egyik indián számára egy pillanatnyi megtorlás történt, de a többi 38-at december 26-án egyidejűleg felakasztották egy bizarr tömeges kivégzésen, amelyet a minesotánusok jóváhagyásának nagy tömege tanúsított.

A Santee Sioux-t bűnösnek találták az úgynevezett „Minnesota felkelés” -be való csatlakozáskor, amely valójában a szélesebb indiai háborúk részét képezte, amelyek a XIX. Század második felében a Nyugatot sújtották. Az anglo telepesek közel fél évszázadon át megszállták a gyönyörű Minnesota-völgyben lévő Santee Sioux területet, és a kormány nyomása fokozatosan arra kényszerítette az indiánokat, hogy költözzenek kisebb fenntartásokhoz a Minnesota folyó mentén.

A fenntartásoknál a santeet rosszul bántalmazták a korrupt indiai szövetségi ügynökök és vállalkozók 1862. július folyamán az ügynökök az éhezés szélére szorították az indiánokat azzal, hogy megtagadták az élelmiszerboltok forgalmazását, mivel még nem kapták meg szokásos visszarúgásukat. A vállalkozók nyugodtan figyelmen kívül hagyták a Santee segítségnyújtási kérelmét.

Felháborodva és kitartásuk határánál a santee végül visszatért, megölve anglo telepeseket és túszként véve a nőket. Az amerikai hadsereg kezdeti erőfeszítései a Santee harcosok megállítására kudarcot valltak, és a Birch Coulee-i csatában Santee Sioux 13 amerikai katonát ölt meg, és további 47 katona megsebesült. Henry H. Sibley tábornok vezetése alatt álló erõk azonban szeptember 23-án végül legyõzték a Santee harcosok fõ testét a Wood Lake-nál, sok túszt megszereztek, és az indiánok többségét átadásra kényszerítették. A foglyok ezt követõ tárgyalásai kevés figyelmet fordítottak az indiánok által az esetleges fenntartásokkal elszenvedett igazságtalanságokra, és nagyrészt a nép bosszúvágyára támaszkodtak. Lincoln elnöknek a halálos ítéletek többségének kommutálása azonban egyértelműen tükrözi azt a megértését, miszerint a Minnesota-felkelés a Santee Sioux anglo általi visszaélésének hosszú története gyökereiben gyökerezik.


300 Santee Sioux sentenced to hang in Minnesota - HISTORY

According to Santee Sioux

Lincoln ordered the largest
mass hanging in U.S. history.
(38 men of the Minnesota Santee Sioux)


Abraham Lincoln

On this day in Minnesota, November 5, 1862, more than 300 Santee Sioux were found guilty of raping and murdering Anglo settlers and were sentenced to hang (see photo). A month later, President Abraham Lincoln commuted all but 39 of the death sentences. One of the Indians was granted a last-minute reprieve, but the other 38 were hanged simultaneously on December 26 in a bizarre mass execution witnessed by a large crowd of approving Minnesotans.

The Santee Sioux were found guilty of joining in the so-called &ldquoMinnesota Uprising,&rdquo which was actually part of the wider Indian wars that plagued the West during the second half of the nineteenth century. For nearly half a century, Anglo settlers invaded the Santee Sioux territory in the beautiful Minnesota Valley, and government pressure gradually forced the Indians to relocate to smaller reservations along the Minnesota River.

At the reservations, the Santee were badly mistreated by corrupt federal Indian agents and contractors during July 1862, the agents pushed the Indians to the brink of starvation by refusing to distribute stores of food because they had not yet received their customary kickback payments. The contractors callously ignored the Santee&rsquos pleas for help.

Outraged and at the limits of their endurance, the Santee finally struck back, killing Anglo settlers and taking women as hostages. The initial efforts of the U.S. Army to stop the Santee warriors failed, and in a battle at Birch Coulee, Santee Sioux killed 13 American soldiers and wounded another 47 soldiers. However, on September 23, a force under the leadership of General Henry H. Sibley finally defeated the main body of Santee warriors at Wood Lake, recovering many of the hostages and forcing most of the Indians to surrender.

The subsequent trials of the prisoners gave little attention to the injustices the Indians had suffered on the reservations and largely catered to the popular desire for revenge. However, President Lincoln&rsquos commutation of the majority of the death sentences clearly reflected his understanding that the Minnesota Uprising had been rooted in a long history of Anglo abuse of the Santee Sioux. -- Source.




Natural Gas is Giving Out

The Supply Cannot Be Depended Upon, and Must Be Abandoned

April 30, 1892, Bee, Sacramento, California – The days of natural gas are numbered. There is surprising unanimity among the mining engineers on this point. They agree that more gas can be found, and that wells may continue to flow to some extent, but they say that experience has proven that the supply cannot be depended upon for manufacturing or for heating purposes. The amount of natural gas reached its maximum two years ago. It has fallen off each year since, notwithstanding the large number of new wells bored.

Said a Pittsburg engineer: “We have had a pretty bad time this winter in Pittsburg. The flow has given out repeatedly just at the time, perhaps, when most needed. People who had no coal in their houses have had the gas go out on them in some of the very coldest weather. Manufacturers who depended on gas for fuel have had to shut down, business has been deranged, and home life has been made miserable. Some people are still boring wells and trying to keep up a supply by tapping places, but with only partial success. One after another the wells give out. When they cease flowing the only thing to be done is to turn the valve and leave them alone. Sometimes a well will start up again and flow gas after it has been idle for some time, but all the same to reach a state of exhaustion sooner or later. Manufacturers are going back to coal again, and householders are agreeing that it will not do to depend upon natural gas. One thing has been made certain, the theory that this manufacture of gas is going on fast enough to supply the flow is all wrong. It is a slow process. We have already bored holes enough to overtask Nature.”

ABOUT ME

Dakota Livesay
Show Low, Arizona, USA

Publisher of Chronicle of the Old West, a monthly newspaper comprised of articles from 1800’s newspapers.

Host of two nationally syndicated radio shows with over 5 million listeners per week. One of the shows is aired on American Forces Radio.

Host of Chronicle of the Old West TV, broadcasting stories about the Wild West.


Watch the video: What happened on December 26, 1862? (July 2022).


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